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  • Data visualization plays an important role in data analysis workflows. It enables data analysts to effectively discover patterns in large datasets through graphical means, and to represent these findings in a meaningful and effective way. Data visualization is an interdisciplinary field, which requires design, web development, database and coding skills.

     

    The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the building blocks for creating a meaningful interactive data visualization. To do this, we will use a dataset from DonorsChoose.org to build a data visualization that represents school donations broken down by different attributes. We will be covering a wide range of technologies: MongoDB for storing and querying the data, Python for building a web server that interacts with MongoDB and serving html pages, Javascript libraries d3.js, dc.js and crossfilter.js for building interactive charts. By the end of this tutorial, you will get enough knowledge that you can leverage for other projects that require interactive data visualization.

     

    The source code for this tutorial can be found in this github repository.

     

    Below is an animated gif of the interactive data visualization dashboard that we will be building in this tutorial.

about 20 hours ago

"Beautiful Plots With Pandas and Matplotlib
[Click here to see the final plot described in this article.]

Data visualization plays a crucial role in the communication of results from data analyses, and it should always help transmit insights in an honest and clear way. Recently, the highly recommendable blog Flowing Data posted a review of data visualization highlights during 2013, and at The Data Science Lab we felt like doing a bit of pretty plotting as well.

For Python lovers, matplotlib is the library of choice when it comes to plotting. Quite conveniently, the data analysis library pandas comes equipped with useful wrappers around several matplotlib plotting routines, allowing for quick and handy plotting of data frames. Nice examples of plotting with pandas can be seen for instance in this ipython notebook. Still, for customized plots or not so typical visualizations, the panda wrappers need a bit of tweaking and playing with matplotlib’s inside machinery. If one is willing to devote a bit of time to google-ing and experimenting, very beautiful plots can emerge."

  • Beautiful Plots With Pandas and Matplotlib

     
      
     

    [Click here to see the final plot described in this article.]

     

    Data visualization plays a crucial role in the communication of results from data analyses, and it should always help transmit insights in an honest and clear way. Recently, the highly recommendable blog Flowing Data posted a review of data visualization highlights during 2013, and at The Data Science Lab we felt like doing a bit of pretty plotting as well.

     

    For Python lovers, matplotlib is the library of choice when it comes to plotting. Quite conveniently, the data analysis library pandas comes equipped with useful wrappers around several matplotlib plotting routines, allowing for quick and handy plotting of data frames. Nice examples of plotting with pandas can be seen for instance in this ipython notebook. Still, for customized plots or not so typical visualizations, the panda wrappers need a bit of tweaking and playing with matplotlib’s inside machinery. If one is willing to devote a bit of time to google-ing and experimenting, very beautiful plots can emerge.

    • Multiple var statements in JavaScript, not superfluous

                       
       
               
              |      152 Comments        
            
       

      I’m not sure where or when it happened, but at some point the JavaScript community decided that multiple, individual var statements were superfluous, instead opting for a single, combined var statement with a comma-separated list of variable declarations and assignments whenever possible.

        

      Just in case you don’t know what I mean, I’ll illustrate:

        
      1.// Single, combined var statement.
      2.var foo = 1,
      3.    bar = 2;
      4. 
      5.// Multiple, individual var statements.
      6.var foo = 1;
      7.var bar = 2;
        

      I’ve asked a number of talented JavaScript programmers why they prefer a single, combined var statement with multiple declarations and assignments to multiple, individual var statements, and the only responses I’ve been able to get seem entirely subjective:

        
         
      1. Multiple var statements are superfluous.
      2.  
      3. Multiple var statements are noobish.
      4.  
      5. Combined var statements look better.
      6.  
        

      While I can’t argue with the last point, in JavaScript, multiple var statements aren’t superfluous and they aren’t noobish. They reduce the effort it takes to maintain code.

            

May 20, 15

"I just finished my 3rd+ cycle and am in the superdrive uplift phase that occurs on cessation for me. I expect it should last about 2 months. Though there has been some return to baseline a while after ending the previous 2 cycles, my baseline of mood and cognitive function was higher each time. There is no feeling of hypomania or pressured drive with this uplift, just a feeling of high normalcy, positivity, hope, and a deep comfortable awareness of my self and the world around me.

Neuralstem's dosing results with their NSI-189 trial match perfectly with what I've found with my dosing. Though the higher doses 70-120 mg did have positive effects in terms of mood and cognition, it was not as much as at lower doses, and it also really pushed on my brain too hard, kind of making me hyper-aware. So if I do another cycle in the future, it will probably be at 60 mg per day.

A couple of other things that occurred without my intention: the first two cycles there was a lot of resurfacing of old memories, random and mostly non-traumatic memories. Maybe there was some kind of culling and decluttering going , or a recycling of old resources. This did not happen much on the third round.

I also experienced, near the end of this last round, very intense and specific food cravings. Shellfish of any kind, salmon, anchovies, calamari, and salmon eggs all became a major part of my diet for about 2 weeks. Since I was already eating a very healthy anti-inflammatory and nutrient-dense diet, plus supplements like DHA and phosphatidylserine, I was not likely deficient in any standard nutrient. I suspect that my brain was really needing something in these foods as a result of the neuronal growth that NSI-189 causes. A plausible speculation from evolutionary health is that our larger and more elaborate brain was the result of an early human diet of such foods.

The next step for me with NSI-189 is to discover and refine my strategies for making the best use of cycles in the brain and learning modalities to enhance these positive changes and keep them gently progressing. The best I've thus far come up with is multiples of the 24 hour circadian cycle, but I suspect that may be too simplistic. The brain may have much more complex cycles of time and neurogenesis. It would be great to know what they are...

The learning modalities part is getting fairly obvious for me, and I imagine to some others, especially on this board.

* newer CBT therapy\training (such as ACT) to install more helpful and safer (for brain health) patterns of thought and behavior

* trauma recovery therapy such as EMDR for those who have trauma or suspect they do

* self-hypnosis and binaural to support intentions, goals, and desirable new habits

* new activities that are enjoyable and relatively safe, ie., new places, people, hobbies, sports or physical activities

* adventures: experiences that are interesting and novel, occur over a time frame of at least a few days, pose some known and manageable psychological\emotional risk and involve the entire human system: body, mind, social, emotional, etc. Travel fits this category well.

* new learnings: such as language, skills

What I have thus far gotten from my experiments with NSI-189,

Reduction in stress responses, eradication of PTSD
Much improved processing of interpersonal issues and solutions
Much greater motivation and drive
More self-confidence
More accurate self-awareness
More energy
Higher libido
Better at multi-tasking
Greatly heightened appreciation of the pleasurable aspects of life
Greater compassion
Better memory
Improved spatial and navigational memory and judgement, especially evident in driving and physical activities
Deeper meditation

Although I did occasionally take a few other nootropics along with NSI-189, such as PRL-8-53, and found some of them helpful, I did not do this the last couple of months. I don't think they brought the permanent changes that I now have. I think NSI-189 was responsible for those.

To recycle and also transform DARPA's diabolical intentions for this drug to create a Warfighter of the Future: I have become a Peacelover of the Present. "

  • I just finished my 3rd+ cycle and am in the superdrive uplift phase that occurs on cessation for me. I expect it should last about 2 months. Though there has been some return to baseline a while after ending the previous 2 cycles, my baseline of mood and cognitive function was higher each time. There is no feeling of hypomania or pressured drive with this uplift, just a feeling of high normalcy, positivity, hope, and a deep comfortable awareness of my self and the world around me.

     Neuralstem's dosing results with their NSI-189 trial match perfectly with what I've found with my dosing. Though the higher doses 70-120 mg did have positive effects in terms of mood and cognition, it was not as much as at lower doses, and it also really pushed on my brain too hard, kind of making me hyper-aware. So if I do another cycle in the future, it will probably be at 60 mg per day.

     A couple of other things that occurred without my intention: the first two cycles there was a lot of resurfacing of old memories, random and mostly non-traumatic memories. Maybe there was some kind of culling and decluttering going , or a recycling of old resources. This did not happen much on the third round.

     I also experienced, near the end of this last round, very intense and specific food cravings. Shellfish of any kind, salmon, anchovies, calamari, and salmon eggs all became a major part of my diet for about 2 weeks. Since I was already eating a very healthy anti-inflammatory and nutrient-dense diet, plus supplements like DHA and phosphatidylserine, I was not likely deficient in any standard nutrient. I suspect that my brain was really needing something in these foods as a result of the neuronal growth that NSI-189 causes. A plausible speculation from evolutionary health is that our larger and more elaborate brain was the result of an early human diet of such foods.

     The next step for me with NSI-189 is to discover and refine my strategies for making the best use of cycles in the brain and learning modalities to enhance these positive changes and keep them gently progressing. The best I've thus far come up with is multiples of the 24 hour circadian cycle, but I suspect that may be too simplistic. The brain may have much more complex cycles of time and neurogenesis. It would be great to know what they are...

     The learning modalities part is getting fairly obvious for me, and I imagine to some others, especially on this board.

     * newer CBT therapy\training (such as ACT) to install more helpful and safer (for brain health) patterns of thought and behavior

     * trauma recovery therapy such as EMDR for those who have trauma or suspect they do

     * self-hypnosis and binaural to support intentions, goals, and desirable new habits

     * new activities that are enjoyable and relatively safe, ie., new places, people, hobbies, sports or physical activities

     * adventures: experiences that are interesting and novel, occur over a time frame of at least a few days, pose some known and manageable psychological\emotional risk and involve the entire human system: body, mind, social, emotional, etc. Travel fits this category well.

     * new learnings: such as language, skills

     What I have thus far gotten from my experiments with NSI-189,

     Reduction in stress responses, eradication of PTSD
     Much improved processing of interpersonal issues and solutions
     Much greater motivation and drive
     More self-confidence
     More accurate self-awareness
     More energy
     Higher libido
     Better at multi-tasking
     Greatly heightened appreciation of the pleasurable aspects of life
     Greater compassion
     Better memory
     Improved spatial and navigational memory and judgement, especially evident in driving and physical activities
     Deeper meditation

     Although I did occasionally take a few other nootropics along with NSI-189, such as PRL-8-53, and found some of them helpful, I did not do this the last couple of months. I don't think they brought the permanent changes that I now have. I think NSI-189 was responsible for those.

     To recycle and also transform DARPA's diabolical intentions for this drug to create a Warfighter of the Future: I have become a Peacelover of the Present.

  • Having a quick look in Alibaba I found suppliers for bulk purchases (at usable amounts for one person) for just 1/10 of regular prices in on line shops. The main issue of course is the quality of the product, is anyone here experienced in buying bulk from Alibaba that can give advice for some future purchases? I am only interested for bulk CDP choline right now, but anyone chime in for common nootropics wanted in bulk, possible suppliers and advice to get best value from purchasing in bulk.

     

     

     

    This is my first time looking for bulk nootropics in Alibaba and my only advice is to search with CAS # to get more results.

     

     

     

    I also found a few advice online that make sense.

     

     

     

    1-Check your supplier company information (address, telephone, emails, web page,workers, history, some important customers they may have, experience, certificates and homologations)

     

    2-GOLD Member in Alibaba is also a good filter to choose your supplier.

     

    3-Ask about if they have some customers in your country, and if you could contact them to get some feedback and references.

     

    4-Ask for sample before making the order, and also if possible, sample when the production is finished, this way, if there is any problem during production, you still have time to fix it, before the shipping.

     

    5-Paynment terms - LC, or deposit and the rest against copy of BL. Check it carefully with your bank

     

    6-Normally, serious companies, their company email never end in hotmail or yahoo, always end with their company name like sale@****.com or sale@kailirazor.com

  • In both cases, the container's layout is naturally filled by the primary element. In other cases, I may give the container an explicit height if I know what it's supposed to be.

    This approach isn't a cure-all for "float" CSS; floating is still a necessary part of managing complex layouts. But, once you understanding positioning (especially four-sided positioning), I think you'll find that you use float less and less.

May 20, 15

"The Primary Objective of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of escalating daily doses of monotherapy with NSI-189 Phosphate for 28 consecutive days in patients with depression. This is important to remember. This was not a primary efficacy analysis, so investors should not read too much into these results beyond the safety and tolerability data. Study arms include: 1) Placebo, 2) NSI-189 40 mg QD, 3) NSI-189 40 mg BID, and 4) NSI-189 40 mg TID. The study was open to patients age 18-60 with diagnosed recurrent MDD. Analysis was conducted at Day 28 (end of treatment), as well as follow-up at Day 35, 42, 49, 70, and 84 (end of study).

Exploratory Objectives included preliminary data on efficacy in the treatment of MDD. Assessment of outcome measures included four commonly used depression and improvement scales. The study was not powered to detect statistical significance on these efficacy endpoints. The endpoints include:

Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ)
Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I)
Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ)

Patient demographics can be seen below:"

    • The Primary Objective of the study was to assess the safety and tolerability of escalating daily doses of monotherapy with NSI-189 Phosphate for 28 consecutive days in patients with depression. This is important to remember. This was not a primary efficacy analysis, so investors should not read too much into these results beyond the safety and tolerability data. Study arms include: 1) Placebo, 2) NSI-189 40 mg QD, 3) NSI-189 40 mg BID, and 4) NSI-189 40 mg TID. The study was open to patients age 18-60 with diagnosed recurrent MDD. Analysis was conducted at Day 28 (end of treatment), as well as follow-up at Day 35, 42, 49, 70, and 84 (end of study).
       
       Exploratory Objectives included preliminary data on efficacy in the treatment of MDD. Assessment of outcome measures included four commonly used depression and improvement scales. The study was not powered to detect statistical significance on these efficacy endpoints. The endpoints include:
       
       
         
      • Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ)
      •  
      • Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
      •  
      • Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I)
      •  
      • Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ)
      •  
       Patient demographics can be seen below:

  • Constructing a new dict:

      
    dict_you_want = { your_key: old_dict[your_key] for your_key in your_keys }
      

    Uses dictionary comprehension.

      

    If you use a version which lacks them (ie Python 2.6 and earlier), make it dict((your_key, old_dict[your_key]) for ...). It's the same, though uglier.

      

    Note that this, unlike jnnnnn's version, has stable performance (depends only on number of your_keys) for old_dicts of any size. Both in terms of speed and memory. Since this is a generator expression, it processes one item at a time, and it doesn't looks through all items of old_dict.

      

    Removing everything in-place:

      
    unwanted = set(keys) - set(your_dict) for unwanted_key in unwanted: del your_dict[unwanted_key]

  • No, there is no "better" way to store a sequence of items in a single column. Relational databases are designed specifically to store one value per row/column combination. In order to store more than one value, you must serialize your list into a single value for storage, then deserialize it upon retrieval. There is no other way to do what you're talking about (because what you're talking about is a bad idea that should, in general, never be done).

      

    I understand that you think it's silly to create another table to store that list, but this is exactly what relational databases do. You're fighting an uphill battle and violating one of the most basic principles of relational database design for no good reason. Since you state that you're just learning SQL, I would strongly advise you to avoid this idea and stick with the practices recommended to you by more seasoned SQL developers.

      

    The principle you're violating is called first normal form, which is the first step in database normalization.

      

    At the risk of oversimplifying things, database normalization is the process of defining your database based upon what the data is, so that you can write sensible, consistent queries against it and be able to maintain it easily. Normalization is designed to limit logical inconsistencies and corruption in your data, and there are a lot of levels to it. The Wikipedia article on database normalization is actually pretty good.

      

  • In “The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind,” Julian Jaynes suggested back in 1976 that schizophrenia — like spirit possession and imaginary playmates — was a vestige of our brain’s bicameral heritage. Jaynes believed that in man’s early history, the left and right hemispheres of the brain did not “talk” to each other. They failed to communicate effectively across the corpus callosum, the bridge from one hemisphere to another. The result was, to Jaynes, obvious: People used to hear voices. Nowadays, most people who hear voices inside their head are diagnosed as schizophrenics.
May 19, 15

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  • Behind every great web app is a great API. In this article, I'll show you how to design a RESTful API and build it with Python and Flask.

      

    The code used in this article can be found on GitHub. When you see a caption, such as Checkpoint: 01_sighting_model, it means that you can switch to the branch named "01_sighting_model" and review what the code looks like at that point in the article.

May 19, 15

"Hello,

I am new to this forum and I am glad to see there are many members here to help each other. I have a question and I was hoping to get some help.

I have schizophrenia auditory hallucinations. In the past I took risperdal at 4 mg and it made me feel depressed and sad. I felt numb and sedated so of course the auditory hallucinations diminished.

My question is what is the most stimulating antipsychotic for auditory hallucinations that wont make me feel like a zombie but still help me at the same time?

word88
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"

  • Hello,

    I am new to this forum and I am glad to see there are many members here to help each other. I have a question and I was hoping to get some help.

    I have schizophrenia auditory hallucinations. In the past I took risperdal at 4 mg and it made me feel depressed and sad. I felt numb and sedated so of course the auditory hallucinations diminished.

    My question is what is the most stimulating antipsychotic for auditory hallucinations that wont make me feel like a zombie but still help me at the same time? 
         
        
     
      word88 
      
    Consumer 0
    Consumer 0
      
     
      
    Posts: 4
    Joined: Sun Apr 03, 2011 3:01 am
    Local time: Tue May 19, 2015 11:00 am
     
    Blog: View Blog (0)
        
  • Hello,

    I am new to this forum and I am glad to see there are many members here to help each other. I have a question and I was hoping to get some help.

    I have schizophrenia auditory hallucinations. In the past I took risperdal at 4 mg and it made me feel depressed and sad. I felt numb and sedated so of course the auditory hallucinations diminished.

    My question is what is the most stimulating antipsychotic for auditory hallucinations that wont make me feel like a zombie but still help me at the same time? 
         
        
     
      word88 
      
    Consumer 0
    Consumer 0
      
     
      
    Posts: 4
    Joined: Sun Apr 03, 2011 3:01 am
    Local time: Tue May 19, 2015 11:00 am
     
    Blog: View Blog (0)
        

  • Experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations is a prominent symptom in schizophrenia that also occurs in subjects at enhanced risk for psychosis and in the general population. Drug treatment of auditory hallucinations is challenging, because the current understanding is limited with respect to the neural mechanisms involved, as well as how CNS drugs, such as antipsychotics, influence the subjective experience and neurophysiology of hallucinations. In this article, the authors review studies of the effect of antipsychotic medication on brain activation as measured with functional MRI in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations. First, the authors examine the neural correlates of ongoing auditory hallucinations. Then, the authors critically discuss studies addressing the antipsychotic effect on the neural correlates of complex cognitive tasks. Current evidence suggests that blood oxygen level-dependant effects of antipsychotic drugs reflect specific, regional effects but studies on the neuropharmacology of auditory hallucinations are scarce. Future directions for pharmacological neuroimaging of auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  • Background

     

    One in four patients with schizophrenia responds poorly to antipsychotic medication, continuing to hear persecutory auditory hallucinations. Patients who are able to sustain a dialogue with their persecutor feel much more in control.

     

    Aims

     

    To develop a computerised system that enables the patient to create an avatar of their persecutor. To encourage them to engage in a dialogue with the avatar, which the therapist is able to control so that the avatar progressively yields control to the patient.

     

    Method

     

    Avatar therapy was evaluated by a randomised, single blind, partial crossover trial comparing the novel therapy with treatment as usual (TAU). We used three main outcome measures: (a) the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS), hallucinations section; (b) the Omnipotence and Malevolence subscales of the Revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R); and (c) the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS).

  • chizophrenia muddles the brain's ability to determine what is real, and sometimes—famously—that uncertainty includes auditory hallucinations. Traditionally, doctors have used pharmaceutical treatments to banish those hallucinatory "voices." But now a new movement out of Europe aims to help people live with them, by engaging with the voices, and it's gaining momentum, Roc Morin writes for The Atlantic.
May 17, 15

"INTRODUCTION

Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are generally defined as false perceptions manifesting as "voices commenting" or "voices conversing" in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the major symptoms for the diagnosis of these disorders as well as the evaluation of psychotic features. Recent developments in auditory neuroscience have increased our understanding of normal auditory perception1, leading to the neurocognitive model of the hallucinating brain2. AHs remain almost unresponsive to available antipsychotic medication in approximately 25-30% of patients with schizophrenia3. Patients who do respond to antipsychotic medications are very likely to suffer recurrence of AHs. A study using transcranial magnetic stimulation has suggested that the mechanism of AH may involve activation of the left temporoparietal cortex4.

Subjective tinnitus is defined as the false perception of sound in the absence of acoustic stimulus similar to AHs. Since the coexistence of tinnitus and AHs is not uncommon5, a common underlying neuromechanism has been proposed5,6. Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT)7, which is a combination of directive counseling and sound therapy, has obtained improvement rates of 80% or more in patients with intractable tinnitus8,9.

We report two cases of AVHs successfully treated with sound therapy safely using a tinnitus control instrument (sound generator)."

  • INTRODUCTION
     
     Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are generally defined as false perceptions manifesting as "voices commenting" or "voices conversing" in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the major symptoms for the diagnosis of these disorders as well as the evaluation of psychotic features. Recent developments in auditory neuroscience have increased our understanding of normal auditory perception1, leading to the neurocognitive model of the hallucinating brain2. AHs remain almost unresponsive to available antipsychotic medication in approximately 25-30% of patients with schizophrenia3. Patients who do respond to antipsychotic medications are very likely to suffer recurrence of AHs. A study using transcranial magnetic stimulation has suggested that the mechanism of AH may involve activation of the left temporoparietal cortex4.
     
     Subjective tinnitus is defined as the false perception of sound in the absence of acoustic stimulus similar to AHs. Since the coexistence of tinnitus and AHs is not uncommon5, a common underlying neuromechanism has been proposed5,6. Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT)7, which is a combination of directive counseling and sound therapy, has obtained improvement rates of 80% or more in patients with intractable tinnitus8,9.
     
     We report two cases of AVHs successfully treated with sound therapy safely using a tinnitus control instrument (sound generator).

  • Hearing the Voice is an interdisciplinary research project which aims to provide a better understanding of what it is like to hear a voice when no one is speaking. Usually associated with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, voice-hearing is also an important aspect of many ordinary people’s lives. Our project seeks to examine this phenomenon from as many different relevant perspectives as possible. In addition to exploring subjective experiences of voice-hearing, we are investigating their underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms, and the ways in which hearing voices has been interpreted and represented in different cultural, historical and religious contexts.
  • While it is true that hearing voices is often a symptom of severe mental illness and can often be very disturbing, many voice-hearers also report experiencing positive voices that provide support and encouragement during times of stress. There is also a close link between voice-hearing and creativity, with many artists, writers and musicians reporting hearing voices or other sounds that inspire great works of literature, art and music.

      

    One of the things we’re investigating at the moment is the way in which writers and storytellers experience the presence, agency and voices of the characters they bring to life in their writing. You can read more about our Writers’ Inner Voices project here http://writersinnervoices.com and in this Guardian blog post by Jennifer Hodgson http://bit.ly/1BXQOiF. You can also listen to a BBC podcast about this aspect of our research here: http://bit.ly/1sffkEO

      

    Voice-hearing is also actively embraced as an important aspect of spirituality in certain religious communities, as a recent study of forty members of a Pentecostal church in North-East London makes clear (Dein & Littlewood, 2007). In this community, those who report hearing the voice of God recall having to learn to distinguish His voice from their own thoughts. Some of these people liken God’s voice to a human voice, and many experience His voice as coming from an external location. God may issue commands, but in this community, most instances of divine communication are associated with a feeling of comfort, forgiveness or knowledge, rather than distress. To read more about this study, please see Dein, S. and Littlewood, R. ‘The Voice of God’ (2007). Anthropology and Medicine 14 vol. 2, 213-228. [Link not available at present]

  • Stanford anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann, PhD, has worked extensively with people who hear voices, and a recent study she conducted compared the experiences of psychotic patients with auditory hallucinations living in three very different locales – San Mateo, California; Chennai India; and Accra, Ghana. Her team found that the voices of Indian and Ghanaian patients were more likely to be playful and benign, whereas those of U.S. patients were on average more threatening.

     

    When Luhrmann took time to talk with me to discuss the implications of her research and the approach, which calls itself the Hearing Voices movement, she noted early on that although the treatments espoused by the movement won’t work for everyone, “The Hearing Voices approach is very important and has an important kernel to it.”

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