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ted bongiovanni

ted bongiovanni's Public Library

15 Dec 12

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  • 10.1002/0471264385.wei0716
  • What is fundamentally different in Piaget's conception of mind is that unlike the behaviorist view that the external world affects the individual—a unidirectional approach with no input from the individual—the process of constructivist learning occurs in the mind of the child encountering, exploring, and theorizing about the world as the child encounters the world while moving through preset stages of life.
  • The child's mind assimilates new events into existing cognitive structures, and the cognitive structures accommodate the new event, changing the existing structures in a continually interactive process. Schemata are formed as the child assimilates new events and moves from a state of disequilibrium to equilibrium, a state only to be put back into disequilibrium every time the child meets new experiences that cannot fit the existing schema. In this way, as Beers (2001) suggests, assimilation and accommodation become part of a dialectical interaction.

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09 Dec 12

This theory states that certain discrete positive emotions—including joy, interest, contentment, pride, and love—although phenomenologically distinct, all share the ability to broaden people's momentary thought–action repertoires and build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources.

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  • In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought–action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
  • This theory states that certain discrete positive emotions—including joy, interest, contentment, pride, and love—although phenomenologically distinct, all share the ability to broaden people's momentary thought–action repertoires and build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources.

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  • Critical thinking is a higher-order thinking skill which mainly consists of evaluating arguments. It is a purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanations of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, or contextual considerations upon which the judgment is based.
  • ritical thinking consists of identifying and analyzing arguments, of considering external influences on arguing, of scientific analytic reasoning, and of logical reasoning.
  • 1) they should consider a disposition or an attitude against critical thinking; 2) they should regard critical thinking as a general skill that must be deepened within different subject matters or contexts; 3) they should offer a segmented and instructionally fully developed training in specific skills; 4) they should focus on all (or many) relevant subskills of critical thinking and integrate them; 5) they should include parts for stimulating the transfer of knowledge; 6) they should support meta-cognitive skills for assisting self-regulation activities; 7) they should not include formal, mathematical, etc. algorithms, but everyday language problems; 8) they should train students for a several week's or month's period; and 9) they should consider the organizational context of classroom instruction.

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  • Themes included the "expansion of time," "experience of time," "quality of the discussion," "needs of the student," and "faculty expertise." While there are advantages to holding discussions in either setting, students most frequently noted that using threaded discussions increased the amount of time they spent on class objectives and that they appreciated the extra time for reflection on course issues. The face-to-face format also had value as a result of its immediacy and energy, and some students found one mode a better "fit" with their preferred learning mode.
  • This framework provides some support for the assertion that higher-order thinking can and does occur in online discussions; strategies for increasing the number of responses in the integration and resolution categories are discussed.
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  • Sormunen and Chalupa (1994) bring some clarity to this problem by stressing that educational models classify critical thinking as both a product and process that combines psychological (i.e metacognition) and philosophical (i.e constructivist reasoning) elements.
  • “critical thinking is about how you approach problems, questions, issues. It is the best way we know to get to the truth (paragraph 26).”

  • The results of this study indicate that getting computer conferencing to work in the way  envisaged by some of its proponents is not a simple task. Although the technology may have  attributes that have the potential to facilitate a dynamic and interactive educational experience,  making this happen depends on much more than the technology. Of all the factors that help to  explain the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of participation in this course, most have  little to do with the technology of computer conferencing.
  • Student characteristics such as their  previous experience with distance education or independent study, their cognitive maturity, and  their experience with participatory and interactive learning environments seem to be necessary  preconditions for the successful implementation of computer conferencing where success is  measured by high levels of participation, interaction, and critical thinking.

  • Critical thinking is a higher-order thinking skill which mainly consists of evaluating arguments. It is a purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanations of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, or contextual considerations upon which the judgment is based.
  • Results showed that synchronous organizers influenced subjective evaluations of the learning process and outcome.
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