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Takuya Homma

Takuya Homma's Public Library

  • mHealth (also written as m-health or mobile health) is a term used for the practice of medical and public health, supported by mobile devices. The term is most commonly used in reference to using mobile communication devices, such as mobile phones and PDAs, for health services and information. The mHealth field has emerged as a sub-segment of eHealth, the use of information and communication technology (ICT), such as computers, mobile phones, communications satellite, patient monitors, etc., for health services and information.[4] mHealth applications include the use of mobile devices in collecting community and clinical health data, delivery of healthcare information to practitioners, researchers, and patients, real-time monitoring of patient vital signs, and direct provision of care (via mobile telemedicine).[5]

     

  • Within the mHealth space, projects operate with a variety of objectives, including increased access to healthcare and health-related information (particularly for hard-to-reach populations); improved ability to diagnose and track diseases; timelier, more actionable public health information; and expanded access to ongoing medical education and training for health workers.[4]

  • The motivation behind the development of the mHealth field arises from two factors. The first factor concerns the myriad constraints felt by healthcare systems of developing nations. These constraints include high population growth, a high burden of disease prevalence,[8] low health care workforce, large numbers of rural inhabitants, and limited financial resources to support healthcare infrastructure and health information systems. The second factor is the recent rapid rise in mobile phone penetration in developing countries to large segments of the healthcare workforce, as well as the population of a country as a whole.[9] With greater access to mobile phones to all segments of a country, including rural areas, the potential of lowering information and transaction costs in order to deliver healthcare improves.

     

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  • China is the second largest oil consumer behind the United States. China emerged from being a net oil exporter in the early 1990s and became the worlds third-largest net importer of oil in 2006. Chinas oil consumption growth accounted for about a third of the worlds oil consumption growth in 2009. Natural gas usage in China has also increased rapidly in recent years, and China has looked to raise natural gas imports via pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG). China is also the worlds largest producer and consumer of coal, an important factor in world energy markets.

     
     
  • Coal supplied the vast majority (71 percent) of Chinas total energy consumption of 85 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 2008. Oil is the second-largest source, accounting for 19 percent of the countrys total energy consumption. While China has made an effort to diversify its energy supplies, hydroelectric sources (6 percent), natural gas (3 percent), nuclear power (1 percent), and other renewables (0.2 percent) account for relatively small amounts of Chinas energy consumption mix. EIA envisages coals share of the total energy mix will fall to 62 percent by 2035 due to anticipated increased efficiencies and Chinas goal to reduce its carbon intensity or carbon emissions per unit of GDP by at least 40 percent from 2005 levels by 2020. However, despite the anticipated efficiency gains, the absolute coal consumption should nearly double to 112 quadrillion Btu accompanying robust economic growth. China also recently announced plans to reduce its energy intensity levels (energy consumed per unit of GDP) by 31 percent from 2010 to 2020 and increase non-fossil fuel energy consumption to 15 percent of the energy mix in the same time period.

     
     
     
  • Roughly 85 percent of Chinese oil production capacity is located onshore. Although offshore E&P activities have increased substantially in recent years, Chinas interior provinces, particularly in the northwests Xinjiang Province, have also received significant attention. Recently, China announced its plan to create Xinjiang into the countrys largest oil and gas production and storage base. By 2020, CNPC aims to boost the provinces hydrocarbon production capacity to 450 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe), up from 278 million boe in 2009 and spend nearly $30 billion (200 billion yuan) on E&P in this region. The onshore Junggar, Turpan-Hami, and Ordos Basins have all been the site of increasing E&P work, although the Tarim Basin in northwestern Chinas Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has been the main focus of new onshore oil prospects. Reserve estimates for Tarim vary, though IHS estimates 290 million barrels. Only 12 percent of the basin has been explored. PetroChina reported that reserve additions in 2009 were 3.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Crude oil production from Tarim reached 111,000 bbl/d in 2009. Since 2005, hydrocarbon production from Tarim has doubled, and the NOCs are taking advantage of tax breaks and other incentives to develop the region and offset declines in mature basins. PetroChina envisages boosting production in the Junggar Basin, one of Xinjiangs oldest basins, from 250,000 bbl/d in 2008 to 328,000 bbl/d by 2015.

     
     

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    • Mainland China has 13 nuclear power reactors in operation, more than 25 under construction, and more about to start construction soon. 
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    • Additional reactors are planned, including some of the world's most advanced, to give more than a ten-fold increase in nuclear capacity to at least 80 GWe by 2020, 200 GWe by 2030, and 400 GWe by 2050. 
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  • (80% from coal, 2% from oil, 1% from gas in 2006)

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  • In short, BBSes were the most advanced social networking tools available when people started going online in large numbers, and the forums filled such a hunger that they became the dominant mode of online communication and stayed that way. (Bandwidth may also be a consideration.)
    •   The degree of contact between Chinese civic associations and people outside China is also surprisingly high. Some of this is strategic, as evidenced by the following:  

        
          
      •   The first sites in Chinese were started by Chinese people in the Diaspora, and they created a thriving (sometimes dissident) culture before the Internet was in wide use inside China.  
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      •   People in China who can’t get their articles published inside the country routinely send them to web sites outside for publication, in Chinese or other languages.  
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      •   Protests that have an international reach tend to be more radical than those focused inside China.  

  • 要するに、前者(production)は価値創造的で、後者(conflict)は価値破壊的な活動なわけです。ハーシュライファーは、多くの経済学者は経済活動というと前者のようなものしか想定せず、後者の存在を無視してきたと批判しています。しかし、既述のように、個別的には後者の方が有利で後者を選んでしまうということがあり得ます。それゆえ、後者のような経済活動を抑止するようなルールの導入などの制度設計が必要になります。後者のような活動をどれだけ封じ込められるかは、効率性の観点から決定的に重要です。なお、ハーシュライファーは、前者の活動を支える技術を technology of production と呼び、後者の活動を支える技術を technology of conflict(あるいは、technology of struggle)と呼んでいます。

  • いずれにしても、このコンテストを通じて、Best of the Bestの開発メンバーが、期間限定で自発的に形成されていったわけで、こうした「最高の知恵の抽出」部分が、crowdsourcing推進の側に経つ学者や経営者から関心が集まったところだ。
  • もっといえば、Netflixが提供する100万件のデータを利用できること自体に価値を見いだす人びとも多数いて、それは単純に「この難問に立ち向かう」ことを通じて得ることができる経験や知見という、副産物の方に関心を持った人たちもいたということだ。
  • ●世界中からソフトウェア開発者が参加
     ●汎用性の高いゴールの設定により、賞金目当てのほかにも参加のインセンティブをもつ人びと・団体が存在
     ●開発ゴール途上で、誰もが超えがたい「難所」の発覚 (8%の頭打ち)
     ●難所攻略を目指した参加チーム間のリソース交換 (情報交換、メンバーのシャッフル)
     ●共通ゴールを目指しているという、参加者間の「一体感」の漸次的醸成
     ●ゴール攻略の直接の達成を放棄し、自身の成果を公開してしまう(善意の?)人物の登場

      

    極めつけは、

      

    ●最終ゴールを達成したチームは2チームあり、その差は20分でしかなかったこと。

  • Carl Djerassi is a polymath. Strictly speaking that means he is someone who knows a lot about a lot. But Djerassi also passes a sterner test: he can do a lot, too. As a chemist (synthesising cortisone and helping invent the Pill); an art collector (he assembled one of the world’s largest collections of works by Paul Klee); and an author (19 books and plays), he has accomplished more than enough for one lifetime.
  • “To me, promiscuity is a way of flitting around. Polygamy, serious polygamy, is where you have various marriages and each of them is important. And in the ideal polygamy I suspect there’s no number one wife and no number six wife. You have a deep connection with each person.”
  • When Young was alive the world contained about a billion people. Few of them were literate and fewer still had the chance to experiment on the nature of light or to examine the Rosetta stone. Today the planet teems with 6.7 billion minds. Never have so many been taught to read and write and think, and then been free to choose what they would do with their lives. The electronic age has broken the shackles of knowledge. Never has it been easier to find something out, or to get someone to explain it to you.

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  • As attractive as the Firefox plug-in can be, it's only the first stage in four that Brian plans toward a computing environment that encourages and leverages human translation. On the browser side, the next logical project is to reproduce the Firefox experience for IE users. Ultimately, he hopes the functionality becomes a standard part of every browser. Even better, he's working on a way to include the functionality on the server side so that it's browser-independent (although that technology would require support in the server software, of course).

  • Bellkor and Ensemble were both coalitions formed by teams that had to join forces to stay in the race. BellKor's own core, though, had always been the team to beat. Lead members Robert M. Bell, Chris Volinsky, and Yehuda Koren began their work at Bell Laboratories, where the first two still work; Koren has since joined Yahoo Research, in Israel. They snagged the competition's first, $50 000 milestone by achieving the best improvement, short of 10 percent, by a certain date. The three scientists, together with Jim Bennett, then a vice-president at Netflix, described their work for IEEE Spectrum, in “The Million-Dollar Programming Prize” (May 2009). 

  • Earlier this year, a group of informal science researchers, led by Rick Bonney of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, published an extremely useful report on public participation in science research (PPSR). In this report, the authors describe three specific models for public participation: contribution, collaboration, and co-creation. They provide detailed case studies of projects in each area, including project descriptions, informal science education goals, participant training techniques, and evaluation outcomes. While the evaluation component of the report is focused on the extent to which these various projects promote science learning and behavior change among participants, the rubric of participatory models introduces a language that can be useful to many kinds of institutions and projects.
    • In the contributory model, visitors are solicited to provide limited and specified objects, actions, or ideas to an institutionally-controlled process.
    • In the collaborative model, visitors are invited to serve as active partners in the creation of an institutional project which is originated and ultimately controlled by the institution.
    • In the co-creation model, visitors and the institution work together from the beginning to define the project's goals and to generate the program or exhibit based on community interests.
    • I would add a fourth model, tentatively called co-option. In the co-option model, the institution turns over a portion of its facilities and resources to support programs developed and implemented by external public groups.
  • In citizen science projects, the public is invited to participate in "real science" by working with scientists on projects that benefit from mass participation around the world. But most citizen science projects are contributory; participants collect data based on specifications determined by scientists, to help answer questions posed by scientists. The scientists control the process, steer the data collection, and analyze the results. Unsurprisingly, studies have shown that these kinds of citizen science projects are enormously successful at engaging the public with science but are not successful at exposing participants to the entire scientific process.

    For this reason, some citizen science projects are now moving towards collaborative and co-creative models. As in the contributory model, in the collaborative model of citizen science, the scientists still determine the research question and the overall data collection and analysis methodology. However, the public is actively involved in multiple steps of the research process, including collecting data, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions. The scientists and the public participants become partners in the implementation and dissemination of the scientific research, though the research is still led by the scientists.

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