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  • As Ioannidis concluded more recently, “many published research findings are false or exaggerated, and an estimated 85 percent of research resources are wasted.”2
  • Psychologists have shown that “most of our reasoning is in fact rationalization,” he says. In other words, we have already made the decision about what to do or to think, and our “explanation” of our reasoning is really a justification for doing what we wanted to do—or to believe—anyway. Science is of course meant to be more objective and skeptical than everyday thought—but how much is it, really?
  • Given that science has uncovered a dizzying variety of cognitive biases, the relative neglect of their consequences within science itself is peculiar.

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  • The HLA locus is the strongest risk factor for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)+ rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Here we identify (citrullinated) vinculin, present in the joints of ACPA+ RA patients, as an autoantigen targeted by ACPA and CD4+ T cells.
  • These T cells recognize an epitope with the core sequence DERAA, which is also found in many microbes and in protective HLA-DRB1*13 molecules, presented by predisposing HLA-DQ molecules. Moreover, these T cells crossreact with vinculin-derived and microbial-derived DERAA epitopes.

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  • Most people with rheumatoid arthritis have special antibodies known as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Citrullination is a normal chemical modification of a protein, but it seems in the case of rheumatoid arthritis this modification singles it out for attack.
  • researchers wanted to find out what the ACPAs were targeting in the joints, to help them understand how to come up with treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The researchers found that a citrullinated form of the protein vinculin was a target for ACPAs. It was also a target for the immune system cells – called T cells – involved in the self-attack.

    The ACPAs and T cells appeared to recognise part of the vinculin protein that was also present in common bacteria, as well as in another protein that occurs naturally in some people, giving them some protection against rheumatoid arthritis. When this "protective" protein was absent, T cells targeted the part of vinculin found earlier. 

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  • The muscle cell cultures are derived from the satellite cells isolated from a needle muscle biopsy sample. The isolated cells first form mononuclear myoblasts and can then be differentiated into multinucleated myotubes that express key characteristics of mature native muscle [9
  • any differences that emerge between the CFS and control cultures will reflect changes retained in the cultured cells that are therefore likely to have an epigenetic/genetic basis
  • Muscle cell origin was confirmed immunohistochemically using antibodies to the muscle-specific protein desmin.

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