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  • The muscle cell cultures are derived from the satellite cells isolated from a needle muscle biopsy sample. The isolated cells first form mononuclear myoblasts and can then be differentiated into multinucleated myotubes that express key characteristics of mature native muscle [9
  • any differences that emerge between the CFS and control cultures will reflect changes retained in the cultured cells that are therefore likely to have an epigenetic/genetic basis
  • Muscle cell origin was confirmed immunohistochemically using antibodies to the muscle-specific protein desmin.

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  • Fatigue is best defined as difficulty in initiating or sustaining voluntary activities
  • The fatigue sensation is thought to be one of the signals for the body to suppress physical activity in order to regain health.
  • Poly I:C injection induced prolonged upregulation of IFN-α mRNA in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamic regions continuing for more than a week.

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  • A growing movement, exemplified by the Society for Participatory Medicine ( and the annual Stanford Medicine X conference (, asserts that patients and clinicians must collaborate. Central to its belief is that whereas the physician brings training and clinical expertise, patients bring their life experience, their deep investment in the outcome of their case, their skills and resilience, and a unique perspective on needs and priorities. The movement recognises patient autonomy as a valid priority and patients’ hearts and minds as essential contributions to the best possible care. We believe that medicine cannot achieve its potential if it ignores the voice of thinking patients.


    This movement is not anti-physician, it’s about partnership.

    • What is a joint attorney?


      You can appoint any number of attorneys in the same lasting power of attorney. You need to decide whether the attorneys should act:

      • jointly - meaning they work together on all matters
      • jointly and severally - where they may act together or separately, as they choose.

      You can specify in the lasting power of attorney that the attorneys must act jointly for specific decisions, such as selling a house, and jointly and severally for all other decisions.

  • exuberant stimulation of cytokine-producing cells seen in the first 3 years of the illness leads to an “exhaustion” of the cytokine-producing cells thereafter
  • We did not pursue proteomic discovery with the goal of identifying noncytokine biomarkers
  • were conducted using only blood samples. Although blood is more easily obtained than cerebrospinal fluid, analysis of the latter may enable unique insights into immune activation in the central nervous system

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  • The new research suggests that these infections throw a wrench in the immune system’s ability to quiet itself after the acute infection, to return to a homeostatic balance; the immune response becomes like a car stuck in high gear. “It appears that ME/CFS patients are flush with cytokines until around the three-year mark, at which point the immune system shows evidence of exhaustion and cytokine levels drop,”
  • “Early diagnosis may provide unique opportunities for treatment that likely differ from those that would be appropriate in later phases of the illness.”
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