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Heather Edick

Heather Edick's Public Library

  • . Indeed, recent research has documented the benefits of regular use of diagnostic and formative assessments as feedback for learning (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & Wiliam, 2004).
  • Summative assessments summarize what students have learned at the conclusion of an instructional segment. These assessments tend to be evaluative, and teachers typically encapsulate and report assessment results as a score or a grade. Familiar examples of summative assessments include tests, performance tasks, final exams, culminating projects, and work portfolios. Evaluative assessments command the attention of students and parents because their results typically “count” and appear on report cards and transcripts. But by themselves, summative assessments are insufficient tools for maximizing learning. Waiting until the end of a teaching period to find out how well students have learned is simply too late.


    Two other classroom assessment categories—diagnostic and formative—provide fuel for the teaching and learning engine by offering descriptive feedback along the way. Diagnostic assessments—sometimes known as pre-assessments—typically precede instruction. Teachers use them to check students' prior knowledge and skill levels, identify student misconceptions, profile learners' interests, and reveal learning-style preferences. Diagnostic assessments provide information to assist teacher planning and guide differentiated instruction. Examples of diagnostic assessments include prior knowledge and skill checks and interest or learning preference surveys. Because pre-assessments serve diagnostic purposes, teachers normally don't grade the results.

  • Formative assessments occur concurrently with instruction. These ongoing assessments provide specific feedback to teachers and students for the purpose of guiding teaching to improve learning. Formative assessments include both formal and informal methods, such as ungraded quizzes, oral questioning, teacher observations, draft work, think-alouds, student-constructed concept maps, learning logs, and portfolio reviews. Although teachers may record the results of formative assessments, we shouldn't factor these results into summative evaluation and grading.

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  • An entity type is a useful abstraction to group together fields. Entities types are used to store and display data, which can be nodes (content), comments, taxonomy terms, user profiles, or something custom developed.


    Read more about Entities in the Entity API documentation.

  • Pages on your Drupal site are laid out in Regions. These can include the header, footer, sidebars, and main content regions. Your theme may define additional regions.


    Blocks are discrete chunks of information that are displayed in the regions of your site's pages. Blocks can take the form of static chunks of HTML or text, menus (which are for site navigation), the output from modules (e.g. hot forum topics), or dynamic listings that you've created yourself (e.g. a list of upcoming events).

    • he Main menu is built by site administrators and displayed automatically in the page header of many themes (and if not, you can enable their blocks to display them).
    • Management is the administration menu, and is presented in the Admin toolbar.
    • Navigation is a catch-all menu that usually contains links supplied by modules on your site.
    • User menu contains links to the User account and the logout link.

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