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  • "Upstream" and "downstream" are business terms applicable to the production processes that exist within several industries. Industries that commonly use this terminology include the metals industry, oil, gas, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Upstream, downstream and midstream make up the stages of the production process for these and other industries.

  • Robert King Merton definierte den Begriff der self-fulfilling prophecy, der selbsterfüllenden Vorhersage, und erklärte mit dieser Theorie eine unbewusst ablaufende Verhaltensänderung bzw. -steuerung, die dazu führt, dass sich eine Erwartung oder Befürchtung tatsächlich erfüllt

  • On 13 September the Russian "Gazprom" announced about the ownership of 37.1% of the new Lithuanian gas transport company Amber Grid. It has been singled out from the company ‘Lietuvos dujos’

  • The amendments also prohibit cross-subsidising in the gas supply sector; that is, gas supply operators will be prohibited from transferring costs or other liabilities between the production and procurement of natural gas, the provision of liquefied natural gas services, storage, sale, transmission and distribution, or any other commercial activity
  • The authors of the amendments from the Ministry of Economics had previously indicated that according to the applicable EU directive, Latvia will lose its status as an emerging gas market on 4 April 2014.

  • The amendments state that the process can be speeded up if one of the following conditions is fulfilled in the meantime: the direct hook-up of Latvia's gas distribution system to that of an EU member state other than Estonia, Lithuania or Finland; a reduction in the market share held by Latvia's principal gas supplier  – Russia's Gazprom - to less than 75%
  • However, there is little chance of either happening, said representatives of Latvia's Economy Ministry and of Latvijas Gaze during the debate in parliament (Saeima). The Latvian network is currently connected only to those of neighbouring Estonia and Lithuania, and all three are 100% dependent on sourcing from Russia
  • Although gas transport activities do not have to be separated until 3 April 2017, separation of the operator's accounts by type of activity must start this year, according to the legislative amendments. Likewise, the gas transport system must be made accessible no later than January 2015 to market players prepared to provide gas transport, distribution and storage services, including for liquefied natural gas (LNG).

  • Itera Latvija head Juris Savickis said it was not vital for his company to acquire the final stake because it already holds a little over 25 percent of the shares, enabling it to block decisions it disapproves of.
  • "We are not worried about the continuation of the privatization process as it's already clear who's playing the decisive role," Savickis told the Latvian business daily Dienas Bizness.

    "The Russian side has always and will continue to play the decisive role in Latvijas Gaze. Only the Russian side can tell whether we'll be getting the gas and for what price."

  • If Latvia complies with the new parameters of the gas price calculation formula provided in the new contract with Gazprom, gas price might drop by 10-15%, says Savickis, dismissing the opinion that Latvia’s distancing from Russia and its energy resources would raise its energy independence.

  • 318 state enterprises, companies and their structural units

  • Regional and  strategic thoughts appeared in the privatization of companies which offer services, in  particular - Latvian Gas (Latvijas Gaze) where it is stated that this and that must be  attracted. As to other enterprises, there was a competition present as far as the law  permitted. In 1994 and 1995, there was a restriction for foreign investors in control over  the wood processing enterprises and real estate situated in the area of a port. In other  respects, there was an absolutely free competition and anyone interested was able to  privatize any enterprise

  • OAO Rosneft (ROSN) acquired full control of OOO Itera, an independent natural gas producer and trader, buying the remaining 49 percent for $2.9 billion as the country’s biggest oil company expands

  • -- (2010), ‘Lithuania in the European Union: Public Opinion Research Results,’ Proceedings of the Institute for European Studies, Journal of TallinnUniversity of Technology, no. 7, pp. 21-38
  • Urbonas, R. (2009), ‘Corruption in Lithuania,’ Connections: The Quarterly Journal, vol. 9, no. 1 (Winter 2009), pp. 67-92

      La trilogie du Caucase, Tome 1 : Caucase Circus

    La trilogie du Caucase, Tome 1 : Caucase Circus

    de Julia Latynina

  • “The gas market in this region [the Baltic countries] lacks transparency since, as we know, there are the so-called trading points, trading terminals in Western Europe, the UK – the hubs, where trade in gas is transparent and those prices are known. Here we have a lot of darkness. And the European Commission’s study into alleged abuse of dominance by Gazprom will show how much everyone is actually paying,” Udrėnas said in an interview to Žinių Radijas (News Radio) on Tuesday

  • On 12 January Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite said that reducing Lithuania's energy dependence on a single source will be among the government's priorities this year
  • Baltijos Naujienos Akcijos
  • TT party members have proposed amendments to the nation’s draft Law on Natural Gas to ban resale of gas with the purpose of forcing natural gas importer Dujotekana UAB, indirectly owned by Gazprom, out of the Lithuanian market

  • Kallas, K. 2008. Political Participation of National Minorities in Decision-Making Process. Cases of Estonia and Latvia, Institute of Baltic Studies. paper available at:, accessed 24 February 2011
  • Kruma, K. 2007a. “‘Chapter 3: Lithuanian Nationality: Trump Card to Independence and its Current Challenges’”. Edited by: Bauböck, R. 2007
  • Pettai, V. 2004. ‘Narratives and Political Development in the Baltic States: History Revised and Improvised’. Ab Imperio, 1(05/2004): 405–33.

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  • De Cillia, R, Reisigl, M and Wodak, R. 1999. The Discursive Construction of National Identities. Discourse and Society, 10(2): 149–73.
  • Kruks, S. ‘“Mother Latvia Loves You as Her Sons and Daughters!” Hysterical Discourse of Latvia's President Vaira Vīke-Freiberga’. paper presented at the 20th Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies. 15–17 June. Washington, DC
  • Muižnieks, N. 2006. Latvian–Russian Relations: Domestic and International Dimensions, Riga: LU Akadēmiskais Apgāds.

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  • Letztlich hat sich die EU Kommission nicht wirklich durchsetzen können, denn zur Gewährleistung einer effektiven Trennung zwischen Energieerzeugung und Netzbetrieb im Übertragungs- und Fernleitungsbereich können die Mitgliedstaaten nach dem neuen Richtlinientexten auf drei gleichwertige Optionen zurückgreifen: Mitgliedstaaten können neben dem Full Ownership Unbundling auch einen sog. Independent System
     Operator (ISO) ­ d.h. die Abgabe des Netzmanagements an einen unabhängigen Netzbetreiber - oder einen sog. Independent Transmission Operator (ITO) ­ d.h. eine verstärkte organisationsrechtlichen Entflechtung zur Gewährleistung eines von der Holding unabhängigen Netzmanagements - als Entflechtungsmaßnahmen wählen
  • Das Modell des Independent Systeme Operator ISO sieht vor, dass das vertikal integrierten Unternehmen ein selbständiges Unternehmen benennt, welches den Netzbetrieb übernimmt. 
     Der ISO wiederum darf keine Kontrolle oder Rechte über ein Erzeugungs- oder Vertriebsunternehmen ausüben
  • Das Modell des Independent Transmission Operator (ITO) geht noch weiter: in diesem Modell dürfen vertikal integrierte Unternehmen ihre Übertragungsnetze behalten, müssen aber strenge Vorgaben zur Trennung des Netzbetriebs von den Erzeugungsoder Vertriebsunternehmen erfüllen, um die Unabhängigkeit der verschiedenen Unternehmen voneinander zu gewährleisten. So müssen das Übertragungsnetz und alle Vermögenswerte, welche für die Energieübertragung erforderlich sind, im Eigentum des Übertragungsnetzbetreibers stehen. Das notwendige Personal muss zwingend beim Übertragungsnetzbetreiber angestellt

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