Chemistry 433 Lecture 22 NC STATE
One set of numbers in the data leaps out. For decades Americans have been asked if they believe most people can be trusted. Forty percent of baby boomers believe most people can be trusted. But only 19 percent of millennials believe that. This is a thoroughly globalized and linked generation with unprecedentedly low levels of social trust.
We live in a country in which many people act as if history is leaderless. Events emerge spontaneously from the ground up. Such a society is very hard to lead and summon. It can be governed only by someone who arouses intense moral loyalty, and even that may be fleeting.
The all-night session was the latest effort by the group, which is working with a parallel House caucus, to elevate the issue of global warming. The members know that serious climate change legislation stands no chance of passage in this divided Congress, where many lawmakers in the Republican-majority House deny the science of human-caused global warming.
Climate caucus members say their objective is to raise the urgency of global warming and build toward a time when the political landscape may have shifted enough that a bill could pass.
The growing intellectual currency of television has altered the cultural conversation in fundamental ways. Water cooler chatter is now a high-minded pursuit, not just a way to pass the time at work. The three-camera sitcom with a laugh track has been replaced by television shows that are much more like books — intricate narratives full of text, subtext and clues.
On the sidelines of the children’s soccer game, or at dinner with friends, you can set your watch on how long it takes before everyone finds the show they have in common. In the short span of five years, table talk has shifted, at least among the people I socialize with, from books and movies to television. The idiot box gained heft and intellectual credibility to the point where you seem dumb if you are not watching it.
All these riches induce pleasure, but no small amount of guilt as well. Am I a bad person because I missed “Top of the Lake” on the Sundance channel?
Television’s golden age is also a gilded cage, an always-on ecosystem of immense riches that leaves me feeling less like the master of my own universe, and more as if I am surrounded.
Climate engineering ideas no longer considered pie in the sky
Scientists backed by the government and Bill Gates are studying schemes such as sunlight-blocking particles and giant carbon vacuums to halt climate change.
By Evan Halper March 4, 2014, 7:42 p.m.
At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Cañada Flintridge, scientists are modeling what such technologies might do to weather patterns. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., a fund created by Microsoft founder Bill Gates — an enthusiast of research into climate engineering — helps bankroll another such effort.
"There is a level of seriousness about these strategies that didn't exist a decade ago, when it was considered just a game," said Ken Caldeira, a scientist with the Carnegie Institution at Stanford University, who sits on the National Academy of Sciences panel. "Attitudes have changed dramatically." Even as the research moves forward, many scientists and government officials worry about the risks of massive climate-control contraptions. . . . Even so, once-skeptical federal officials and scientists at major research institutions including Stanford, Harvard and Caltech have decided that ignoring these largely untested technologies also poses dangers.
"There has been so little movement globally and, particularly, nationally toward mitigation of climate change that we're in a situation where we need to know what the prospects are for this," said Marcia McNutt, a former director of the U.S. Geological Survey, who is chairwoman of the National Academy of Sciences panel.
"Whether we wind up using these technologies, or someone else does and we suddenly find ourselves in a geo-engineered world, we have to better understand the impacts and the consequences," she said.
. . . . The technologies being proposed are numerous, and often odd.
"I have seen all kinds of proposals," said James Fleming, author of "Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control" and a member of the National Academy geo-engineering committee.
"There is a crazy new one in my email every week," he said. "There are a lot of Rube Goldbergs out there, and some Dr. Strangeloves."
Of the technologies being considered, those that would remove carbon tend to be less controversial. . . . . The bids to redirect sunlight are much more economical and could be deployed more quickly. They also carry much more risk, the congressional research study warns.
. . . .Much of the momentum behind geo-engineering comes from an organization Gates created with Caldeira and Harvard professor David Keith. The two scientists have been getting $1.3 million annually from Gates to fund their research, as well as to distribute to other projects, such as the modeling being done at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Caldeira said. They also hold cram sessions for the billionaire a few times each year on climate and energy issues, including geo-engineering.
Caldeira and Keith hope the National Academy effort will open the way for government-sponsored field tests. But McNutt cautions that may not happen. . . . . "People are getting more and more desperate about climate change,"
The FactSage 6.0–accessible databases are the largest set of evaluated and optimized thermodynamic databases for inorganic systems in the world.
The solution databases (for solutions of oxides, salts, metals, etc.) have all been developed by evaluation and "optimization" of data from the primary literature. Based on proper thermodynamic models for every phase, all available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data for a system are evaluated simultaneously in order to obtain one set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In such an "optimization", all data are rendered self‑consistent, discrepancies in the data can often be resolved, and the data can be properly interpolated and extrapolated. In particular, properties of multicomponent solutions can usually be estimated with good accuracy from the optimized model parameters of their binary and ternary sub‑systems. The resulting databases of model parameters can be used for calculating phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties using the FactSage Gibbs energy minimization software.
Public discussion on Ukraine is all about confrontation. But do we know where we are going? In my life, I have seen four wars begun with great enthusiasm and public support, all of which we did not know how to end and from three of which we withdrew unilaterally. The test of policy is how it ends, not how it begins.
EXCELLENT ESSAY from a man out of power.
Vapor Pressure Curves for Common Elements - including Na, K
Easiest to see in bar chart
This is why the immense popularity of Fifty Shades of Grey is actually great news for men. It’s a signal from the female gender—not unlike the one broadcast by Shawna—transmitting an exciting and encouraging message to men everywhere: “We are interested in sex! We’re just not interested in sex with you unless you’re a superhot billionaire.”
“The devolution of the two-party system has begun,” Mr. Stein said. “Money is leaving the parties and going to independent expenditure groups. These now are fracturing the ‘big tents’ of our old two-party system into independent, narrow and well-funded wings.”
No doubt this has happened, one way or another, many times.
Over the past week, Congressional Republicans have joined major oil and gas producers like ExxonMobil in urging the administration to speed up oil and natural gas exports. Although environmentalists, some Democrats and American manufacturing companies that depend on the competitive advantage of cheap domestic natural gas oppose the effort, they have fallen to the sidelines in the rush.
Cartoon worth seeing.
Superb, moving video by Figueres - plus this in the article:
"the grouping of the world's 47 "least developed" countries said this week that they would want far more money to adapt their economies to climate change than the $100bn a year that been so far proposed by rich countries.
"We will want more than the $100bn to agree to a new Paris protocol," said Quamrul Choudhury, a lead negotiator for the group which includes many African and Asian countries. "On top of that we will want a legal mechanism to compensate for 'loss and damage' [compensation for extreme climate change events]. There should definitely be some space in the [final] treaty for that," he said in London.
"Figueres later agreed that the $100m proposed in 2009 as compensation for poor countries would not be enough for them to build defences and adapt their economies. "It was a figure plucked from a hat … $100bn is not enough [to meet] the mitigation and not at all for the adaptation costs. The International Energy Agency has suggested it may cost $1 trillion over 25 years just for adaptation. $100bn is a freckle on the map of what needs to be invested."
"A major UN climate science panel report to be published at the end of this month will spell out the impacts of climate change on humanity and the natural world. Leaked versions of the report say agricultural production will decline by up to 2% every decade for the rest of the 21st century.
Ranked in 2013, part of Best Engineering Schools
UW Madison tied for 6th - MIT is first
He said Silatronix is working with Saft, a global battery company based in France. “Saft is taking their products off their lines and filling them with our electrolytes,” Zager said. Saft, through its operations in Baltimore, supplies the U.S. military with batteries.
Future plans - - The $700,000 in investment that Silatronix closed in November is the first portion of what the company hopes will be a total $3 million funding round expected to be finalized by the end of March. Investors include Venture Investors; the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF); Venture Management; and the Pyle Group, whose chairman, Thomas Pyle, Jr., is a former CEO and co-owner of battery maker Rayovac Corp., now part of Spectrum Brands.
The $2 million from the Navy is an 18-month contract. It brings the total of grants and investment in Silatronix to $9 million.
A day is coming when solar-plus-battery systems will become cheaper than utility-sourced electricity, making customer grid defection a possibility. but when and where could this happen, and is defection in everyone's best interest? A new RMI report, The Economics of Grid Defection, offers some answers.
Electrochemical refining of silicon in molten salts
Geir Martin Haarberg, Ole Edvard Kongstein,
Annabelle Laurent, and Shulan Wang
SiCl electodeposited @ 800 C - seemingly efficiently
Periodic Trends in Ionic RadiiDue to each atom’s unique ability to lose or gain an electron, periodic trends in ionic radii are not as ubiquitous as trends in atomic radii across the periodic table. Therefore, trends must be isolated to specific groups and considered for either cations or anions.
Nice writeup - good graphic