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Dharma Hernandez

Dharma Hernandez's Public Library

  • Reading is mercilessly cumulative.
  • By reading texts in history/social studies, science, and other disciplines, students build a foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas. Students can only gain this foundation when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades.”
  • When schools fail to address gaps in knowledge and language, the deficits widen—a phenomenon that cognitive scientist Keith Stanovich calls the “Matthew Effect,” after a passage in the Gospel of Matthew: “For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.”

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Mar 11, 16

We are conditioning students for a world that is multiple choice, when it's open-ended. #sunchat https://t.co/JGTxQ3GpLT

  • (ELLs score 31 points behind non-ELLs in math) and grade 12 (ELLs score 28 points behind non-ELLs in math).
    • For example, Schleppegrell (2007) outlines a number of language demands in math that can challenge ELLs, including

        
         
      • The use of symbolic notation.
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      • Visual displays, such as graphs.
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      • Technical vocabulary.
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      • Grammatical features, including complex noun phrases
  • As part of a professional development initiative designed to help teachers implement best practices for ELLs, one day's focus was on introducing a framework for integrating language and content instruction. This framework (see figure 1) begins with the development of content objectives (step 1), proceeds through an analysis of the text, tasks, and tests to be used in a lesson as the basis for identifying language demands (step 2), and concludes with the development of language objectives that are based on the language demands (step 3). Here, we'll focus specifically on how step 2 was introduced to and modeled for teachers.

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