Alfred Nobel was a Swedish inventor. As a young man, he traveled to the United States. What he saw convinced him of the need for a safe and dependable explosive. It was such a vast country. So much work needed to be done--building bridges, cutting tunnels, and digging canals.
Plans were already being made for one of the greatest construction efforts of all time--a transcontinental railway system to connect California with the eastern states. The project would require carving a track through the great Rocky Mountains. The work would have to be done by the daily toil of human muscle. There had to be a better way!
From his youth Alfred Nobel was seriously interested in literature and pacifism. He was well informed about world events of the time, ideas and philosophy. He was also well read, particularly in French and English literature. The politically radical and pacifist writings of Percy B. Shelley (1792-1822) in many respects reflected his own thinking. In a letter to a Belgian pacifist, he described his dream of a world at peace in terms of classical allegories. He continued: "The more I hear of the thunder of the cannon, the more blood I see shed, plundering being legalized and the gun sanctioned, the more alive and intensive becomes this dream of mine." At the same time he wrote to an English friend, a clergyman, that he harboured "a serious wish to see a rose-red peace grow up in this explosive world."(3) Alfred Nobel abhorred violence and conflict.
The methods for the use of dynamite developed by Alfred Nobel were for civilian purposes and made possible enormous projects such as the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal, or the railroad passage through the Swiss Alps (Gotthard Tunnel). However, according to hearsay the Germans used dynamite in the war of 1870 against France.
In the early 1900's, the discovery of oil in southwestern Iran gave the country an enormous source of wealth. Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled Iran as shah (king) from 1925 to 1941. In 1941, his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became shah. Both men used revenues from Iran's oil exports to modernize the country. They promoted economic and social development. In 1979, revolutionaries under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Muslim religious leader, overthrew Mohammad Reza. The revolutionaries took control of Iran. They changed Iran's government from a constitutional monarchy to an Islamic republic. Their policies led to strict Islamic control over all areas of people's lives. Their rule resulted in severe economic problems for the nation. Relations between Iran and Western countries became strained.
After the 1979 revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers drafted a constitution for the new Islamic republic. The authors of the new constitution included many religious leaders. The Constitution went into effect in December 1979. It is closely based on the teachings of Islam. Under the Constitution, the nation's supreme leader is the faqih. The faqih is a scholar in Islamic law and the recognized religious leader of most Iranians. The Constitution named Khomeini the first ruling faqih of the Islamic republic. It granted him tremendous powers and placed him above all other government officials. Khomeini held the position of faqih until his death in 1989. He was succeeded by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Khamenei is referred to as the "Spiritual Guide"—or more formally as the "Supreme Guide"—of the nation.
The economy of Iran grew rapidly during the 1960's and 1970's. The government used part of Iran’s enormous oil revenues to finance many new businesses and industries. The revolution of 1979, however, damaged the Iranian economy. Thousands of highly trained workers opposed to the Islamic government left Iran. Many factories closed. A war against Iraq during the 1980’s and political unrest at home also disrupted the economy. Oil production and exports dropped.
Revolution and the Islamic Republic. In the late 1970's, the various opponents of the shah united under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Muslim religious leader. In January 1979, the shah left Iran after mass demonstrations, strikes, and riots against his rule. The next month, the revolutionaries took control of the government.
Khomeini declared Iran an Islamic republic. He and his followers began setting up a new government based on the teachings of Islam. For the first year after the revolution, a Revolutionary Council appointed by Khomeini carried out the new government's policies. Hundreds of officials of the shah's government were tried in revolutionary courts and put to death by firing squads. The Islamic government shut down newspapers and magazines. It banned political parties. It closed universities. It placed restrictions over the people's personal freedoms. A new constitution made Khomeini the faqih (supreme leader) of Iran. In 1980, the Iranian people elected the first president and the first Majlis of the republic.
The new government was bitterly anti-American because the United States had supported the shah. In October 1979, President Jimmy Carter allowed the shah to enter the United States for medical treatment. On November 4, Iranian revolutionaries seized the United States Embassy in Tehran. They held a group of Americans—chiefly embassy workers—as hostages. The United States and many other countries denounced this action as a violation of international law. They demanded that the hostages be freed. The revolutionaries said they would release the hostages if the U.S. government returned the shah to Iran for trial. The United States refused to do so. The shah moved to Panama in December 1979 and to Egypt in March 1980. He died in Egypt in July 1980. The revolutionaries freed the hostages on Jan. 20, 1981. See Carter, Jimmy (The Iranian crisis). See also Back in Time: Iran (1979); Iran (1980); Iran (1981).Print "Revolution and the Islamic Republic" subsection
After Khomeini. Ayatollah Khomeini died in 1989. Iran's top religious leaders chose Ali Khamenei to succeed Khomeini as faqih. Khamenei had been Iran's president. Hashemi Rafsanjani was elected Iran's new president in 1989 and was reelected in 1993.
In June 1990, a major earthquake struck northwestern Iran. About 40,000 people were killed.
Iran faced serious economic and political problems in the 1990's. The nation's oil exports dropped because of a decrease in production capacity and lower demands in the world market. The decline in oil revenues made it difficult for Iran to pay for much-needed imports. Other economic problems in Iran included rising prices, high foreign debt, a sharp drop in the exchange value of Iran's currency, and high unemployment.
Recent developments. In the early 2000's, tensions rose between Iran and the United States. The U.S. government renewed its accusations that Iran was supporting terrorism and seeking to develop nuclear weapons. Iran denied these accusations. It said its nuclear activities were only for the purpose of producing electric power. In 2003, United Nations (UN) atomic energy inspectors began visiting Iran to try to learn the nature of the country's nuclear program. They criticized Iran for concealing some nuclear activities. In 2004, under international pressure, Iran agreed to suspend its enrichment of uranium. Enrichment is one of the steps involved in the preparation of uranium for use as a nuclear fuel.
Because they know how dangerous nuclear weapon is, they tries not to let other countries to make nuclear bomb...
Even if it's assassination...
This is basically talks about the daylight assassination of scientist working on science system. Lots of nations around are assuming it as it's Israel's planned assassination.
"Mossad Training Terrorists to Kill Iran's Nuclear Scientists, U.S. Officials Claim... but Is Israel's Real Target Obama?" Mail Online. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2099142/Mossad-training-terrorists-kill-Irans nuclear-scientists-U-S-officials-claim--Israels-real-target-Obama.html>.
U.S. officials confirmed today that Israel has been funding and training Iranian dissidents to assassinate nuclear scientists involved in Iran's nuclear program.
The claim has already been levelled by the Iranian government who believed that Mossad, Israel's secret service, have been arming dissidents with the terrorist organisation the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK).
Last month Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan, 32, a chemistry expert, was killed in a brazen daylight assassination when two assailants on a motorcycle attached a magnetic bomb to his car in Tehran.
This is how powerful an Atomic bomb was.
Miller, Wayne. "JAPAN. 1945. Hiroshima Aftermath." Magnum Photos. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.
a Japanese city with a population of about 300,000. The force of the atomic blast was greater than 20,000 tons of TNT. According to U.S. statistics, 60,000-70,000 people were killed by the bomb. Other statistics show that 10,000 others were never found, and more than 70,000 were injured. Nearly two-thirds of the city was destroyed.