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Chanhee Jeon

Chanhee Jeon's Public Library

Childhood and Family

• Born in October 21st, 1833

• His from Stockholm, Sweden

• At first, he was a weak baby who had to struggle to live.

• The household was poor.

o His house was burned down in 1832.

o His two older brothers, Robert and Ludvig had to sell matches on the street to earn money to buy food.

• But he was born in technically minded family, that’s the most important factor that made Nobel a successful scientist.

• Family History

o Olof Rudbeck

• 1630 ~ 1702

• Alfred Nobel’s great-great-great grandfather

• Discovered how a part of a human body called the lymphatic system works.

• Wrote a book – Atlantica

• His father’s bankruptcy made poor environment for Nobel to learn something.

• Despite the Bankruptcy, he learned lots of things quickly.

• Life in St.Petersburg

o In 1842, Nobel sails to St.Petersburg

Alfred Nobel left St.Petersburg for summer of 1850

• Heard about Nitroglycerin in Paris.

His girlfriend died in Paris(Tuberculosis) → Never married again & no children to bequeath his money.

To US – Met John Ericson

• Went to US as Sweden did not provide lots of experiences for engineers.

• Made an engine that works with steam.

• Worked in ships, improving the design of propeller.

Back to St. Petersburg

• Went to father’s business.

• Crimean war begin in 1853. & Nobel family manufactured lots of things.

o Rapid firing rifles

o Sea mines

Bankruptcy again in 1856.

Background knowledge – Crimean war.

• In 1850, Turkey controlled much of middle East.

• Russia was having bad relationship with France.

• Turkey sided for GB and France

• Enraged, Russia attacks Turkey

• Ends up with Treaty of Paris.

Early Nitroglycerin

• There was lots of problems in gunpowder

o Weak and cause lots of smokes

• Invention of guncotton by Prof.C.F.Schonbein in Basle, Switzerland developed the science a lot.

• Prof.Ascanio Sobrero discovered nitroglycerin in Turin, Italy.

o Powerful, but hard to handle.

• Caused lots of accidents

• Nobel’s brother, Emil died.

• By mixing in a stone called Kieseguhr, made this explosive to be safer.

His death

• In 1887, He was almost dying of Tuberculosis

• He hated war, didn’t want dynamites to be used in war.

• For atonement of his invention, he lives a will to make a “Nobel foundation” and places a executor, Ragnar Sohlman.

Binns, Tristan Boyer. Alfred Nobel: Inventive Thinker. Danbury, CT: Franklin Watts, 2004. Print.

http://m.eb.com/assembly/18045

http://movers-and-shakers.wikispaces.com/Alferd+Nobel

Found the structure of dynamites here.

  • From his youth Alfred Nobel was seriously interested in literature and pacifism. He was well informed about world events of the time, ideas and philosophy. He was also well read, particularly in French and English literature. The politically radical and pacifist writings of Percy B. Shelley (1792-1822) in many respects reflected his own thinking. In a letter to a Belgian pacifist, he described his dream of a world at peace in terms of classical allegories. He continued: "The more I hear of the thunder of the cannon, the more blood I see shed, plundering being legalized and the gun sanctioned, the more alive and intensive becomes this dream of mine." At the same time he wrote to an English friend, a clergyman, that he harboured "a serious wish to see a rose-red peace grow up in this explosive world."(3) Alfred Nobel abhorred violence and conflict.
  •   The methods for the use of dynamite developed by Alfred Nobel were for civilian purposes and made possible enormous projects such as the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal, or the railroad passage through the Swiss Alps (Gotthard Tunnel). However, according to hearsay the Germans used dynamite in the war of 1870 against France.

He was a Swedish chemist. (1833~1896)

He invented dynamite and other explosives, but he is best remembered for the Nobel Prizes, which he endowed with the bulk of his personal fortune.

His life.

• He was born in Oct. 21, 1833, in Stockholm.

• His father, impecunious in the Sweden of the 1839s, was more fortunate in Russia and by 1842 had established himself in a St.Petersburg engineering and armaments concern.

• In 1850, he traveled Western Europe and US for two years

o The Crimean war ends his journey.

• Nobel remained in Russia when his father returned to

• Stockholm in 1858.

• And he developed the chemical called nitroglycerin, which is used for gunpowders.

o The problem for this chemical was that this is so explosive, so it was quite hard to handle this chemical’s danger.

o However, Alfred Noel spilled in porous solids, including kieselguhr.

• This material reduced the blasting efficiency by a quarter, but this became much safer than before.

• This bomb is called dynamites.

• Patented in 1867,

• From 1865 to 1873 Nobel lived in Hamburg and then in Paris until 1891, when the Italian military adoption of ballistae made him unpopular there.

• Nobel’s will directed that the bulk of his estate, above 33 million kronor, should endow annual prizes for those who, in the preceding year, had most benefited mankind in five specified subjects

o Physics

o Chemistry

o Medicine

o Literature

o Peace

o A Nobel prize is one of the highest honors that an individual can receive.

Byers, Paula K. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Print.

30 Apr 12

in list: Imam in power

Ansari, Ali M. "Iran." World Book Student. World Book, 2012. Web.

O'Shea, Maria. Iran. 2000. 96. Print.

30 Apr 12

in list: Imam in power

Iranian revolution is a big event by itself, because it actually changed a country’s ideology and authority. However, the factor that makes this larger is that Iran turned her back to United States, and this is still ongoing for 33 years. After the revolution, there were lots of incidents, such as US embassy hostage crisis. Because it is a turning point of relationship between Iran and US that triggered lots of struggling incidents, Iranian revolution is flawless to be considered as “Tipping Point” of modern world history.

in list: Imam in power

Cyrus II - Defeated Medes in Mid 6th century, B.C.

Cambyses - Conquered Egypt

Darius - Conquered Northern India & Ionian Greek Land.

Xerxes - Decline as he fails to conquer Greece

 

Alexander the Great conquered Persian stronghold of Persepolis. BC 330

 

Regained independence BC 323

 

AD 1588 ~ 1629

Persian Shah Abbas I reunited Persia.

By 20th century, Persia diminished to present size.

Early 20th century, British discovered oil in Khuzestan Plain (Mentioned in Geography notecard)

 

WWI

-During WWI due to government's corruption and Iran's lack of Independence, young army leader Reza Khan led a coup (Becomes Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925)

 

WWII

-During WWII, Iran was occupied by British & Russians.- Reza Shah Pahlavi abdicates and was succeeded by Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

  -tried to nationalize oil field, but failed.

  -White revolution

    -MRSP implemented sweeping reforms "White Revolution" This included land redistribution, restrictions placed on women.

    -1963

By 1978, Groups of students, intellecuals, and religious leaders strongly opposed to it.

 

Revolution

In1978~1979, there were strong political discontents.

 

Shah's secret service, Savak, wiped out all political organizations.

    -Students & intelletuals wanted more political freedom.

    -Muslims thought Shah's policies were against muslims. And they becomes the dominana revolutionary force.

 

P.10~14, Iran

in list: Imam in power

Area = 636,296 mile2(1,648,000km2)

= More than twice of Texas.

One of the highest country(Average 4,000ft = 1219 meters)

Central Iran consists of vast, flat desert.

Villages are scattered around the deserts and throughout the mountain chains.

Three mountain ranges cut Iranian plateau

-Zagros Mountains in the West and Southwest divide Iran from Mesopotamian plain of Iraq.

-The Markazi range extends from northwestern Iraq to the Southeastern coast.

-Elburz Mountains in northern Iran consist of several volcanic peaks, including Mt.Damavand(5671m).

Lakes and Plains

-North of the Elburz mountains, land slopes down to Caspian Sea(Largest lake in the world)

-Khuzestan, where summer temperatures can reach 51 Celcius, is the hottest place of the plain.

- Karun, Iran's only navigable river, flows across Khuzestan plain

- Most of Iran's oil fields are located in here.

P.6~7 Iran

in list: Imam in power

Throughout history, there has been numerous revolutions took place, and most of them took place due to political issues or economical problem. Regardless of the reasons of revolutions, the main aims are simple - to overthrow the authority. In 1979, which is significant year in modern world history, Iranian revolution takes place. This incident triggered 33-years of struggle between Iran and United States, and it is still ongoing. For Iranian revolution, there were political reasons and religious reasons – which makes this revolution different from ordinary revolutions, behind the revolution.

in list: Imam in power

  • In the early 1900's, the discovery of oil in southwestern Iran gave the country an enormous source of wealth. Reza Shah Pahlavi ruled Iran as shah (king) from 1925 to 1941. In 1941, his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became shah. Both men used revenues from Iran's oil exports to modernize the country. They promoted economic and social development. In 1979, revolutionaries under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Muslim religious leader, overthrew Mohammad Reza. The revolutionaries took control of Iran. They changed Iran's government from a constitutional monarchy to an Islamic republic. Their policies led to strict Islamic control over all areas of people's lives. Their rule resulted in severe economic problems for the nation. Relations between Iran and Western countries became strained.
  •  After the 1979 revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers drafted a constitution for the new Islamic republic. The authors of the new constitution included many religious leaders. The Constitution went into effect in December 1979. It is closely based on the teachings of Islam. Under the Constitution, the nation's supreme leader is the faqih. The faqih is a scholar in Islamic law and the recognized religious leader of most Iranians. The Constitution named Khomeini the first ruling faqih of the Islamic republic. It granted him tremendous powers and placed him above all other government officials. Khomeini held the position of faqih until his death in 1989. He was succeeded by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Khamenei is referred to as the "Spiritual Guide"—or more formally as the "Supreme Guide"—of the nation.

  •  The economy of Iran grew rapidly during the 1960's and 1970's. The government used part of Iran’s enormous oil revenues to finance many new businesses and industries. The revolution of 1979, however, damaged the Iranian economy. Thousands of highly trained workers opposed to the Islamic government left Iran. Many factories closed. A war against Iraq during the 1980’s and political unrest at home also disrupted the economy. Oil production and exports dropped.

     

3 more annotations...

in list: Imam in power

Iranian Revolution

Dominant religion: Shia

Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi:

• He comes in after WWII taking over for his father, Reza Shah

• He accommodated foreign oil interests (like the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.)

• He tried to modernize/secularize Iran

• Pro-US

 

Out goes the Shah; In comes the Ayatollah

 

PM Mossaddeq: elected in 1951 as people were unhappy with the Shah.

• Became PM in 1951

• He began which greatly disturbed the British. They were kicked out of the country so needed help.

• While he is not a communist, he receives support from the Iranain communist party.

• Remember kids… Your friends and who you hang with makes an impression on others!

His actions?

 

Result?

• Well… Mohammed Reza fled the country, the Shah loyalists, with the help of the CIA, overthrew Mossaddeq in 1953 and put the Shah back into power.

• Crisis resolved. Or is it?

 

 

Truman doesn’t overthrow, but Eisenhower does.

 

 

SAVAK – The Shah’s intelligence service

• Very powerful

• Very repressive

 

WHY the Revolution by 1979?

• Well… You identify some points from the GREAT article I handed out to you

• The Shah imposed price controls to curb inflation-> closed down many small shops-> merchant class opposes

• Modernists opposed him for his capitalistic economic policies

• Progressive intellectuals wanted a modernized Iran, but no monarchy

• Professional middle class viewed the shah’s highly centralized control over the political and economic process as the greatest obstacle to their advancement

 

January, 15 1979

• The Shah leaves Iran

• He first goes to Egypt and then Mexico.

• Because he has cancer and his health is deteriorating he asks for admittance to the US and President Jimmy Carter accepts the request.

• He leaves the US for Panama and then dies in Egypt

 

February 1, 1979: The Islamic Republic is declared

• Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini: He is kicked out of Iran in 1964 and goes to Iraq and then Saddam Hussein kicks hm out of Iraq in 1978 and he goes to France which is actually a blessing in disguise. WHY?

• According to Khomeini: “There is not a single topic of human life for which Islam has not provided instruction and established norms.”

• Hence… The creation of a theocracy (Doesn't mean he is the President!)

power from 1979 to 1989.

My Background knowledge

Before Iranian revolution, Iran was under foreign force, and their natural resource were under foreign forces' control.

The first one who tried to get rid of foreign force was Iranian Prime Minister Mossaddeq who was in power from 1951 to 1953.

Actually, he was assassinated in 1953.

Then Shah, who was pro to western force, came back into the power, and kicked Ayatollah out of Iran as Ayatollah was gaining more power, and shah was afraid to the western force.

Ayatollah initially went to Iraq, where is touching Iran's bourder line.

However, Ayatollah was kicked out from there again and goes to France in 1978.

In France, he records his speech with cassette tapes, and he sent them to Iran, and these speech were heard by the entire Iranian population. This was building powder keig in Iran for revolution, and in January 1979, shah was kicked out of the throne, and the revolution was triggered.

in list: Imam in power

The Hostage crisis: November 4, 1979: Carter is president

Iranian students took 52 American hostages (embassy staff) hostage for 444 days.

Raegan is being president when the hostages are released

 

WHY?

• The Shah was allowed into the US

• The US was accused of interfering in Iranian internal affairs

• Taking hostages would serve to weaken the moderates in the newly formed government and increase the power of the Ayatollah


Since revolution, Iran turns their back to western force - becoming opponent of the entire world.

Then in 2001, 9.11 took place.

After this terrorism, George W. Bush announced Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as "Axis of Evil".

The aftermath is still ongoing. US' EMBARGO on Iran is still there; however, Iranian government itself is controlling the foreign product in their country, since there are too many foreign products in Iran.

Iran has the second largest amount of oil in their land. They have lots of natural resource, means they have large money source.

Their mind is still quite Islamic and against US.

There is no US government there.

There was American church before the revolution; however, Koreans are using that church after the revolution, as Americans were prohibitted to emigrate into Iran.

In addition when people are discussing about nuclear issues, North Korean issues should not be omitted. North Korea has been familiar to nuclear-related issues, since 2002, regarding high infamy in the nuclear issues, due to the violation of international treaties such as NPT, or treaties of 1994. Since North Koreans already had some events such as selling the long-range missile to Iran, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, the entire nations had to be sensitive toward North Korea’s development of nuclear warhead

- This is what I liked put in the essay.

However, the entire text talks about the North Korean political interaction with South Korea, Japan, and US.

In last 50 years, North Korea ruled by Kim dynasty broke the world's treatment long times ago.

Some American senates even expected Korean peninsula to be united in 5 years in 1994, however, the reunion is not taking place until now, which would be about 20 years.

The entire world is sensitive on North Korean development of Nukes, because North Korea is hard wired with other "Axises"

Cothran, Helen. Do Nuclear Weapons Pose a Serious Threat? Detroit, MI: Greenhaven, 2005.

Print.

In addition when people are discussing about nuclear issues, North Korean issues should not be omitted. North Korea has been familiar to nuclear-related issues, since 2002, regarding high infamy in the nuclear issues, due to the violation of international treaties such as NPT, or treaties of 1994. Since North Koreans already had some events such as selling the long-range missile to Iran, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, the entire nations had to be sensitive toward North Korea’s development of nuclear warhead

- This is what I liked put in the essay.

However, the entire text talks about the North Korean political interaction with South Korea, Japan, and US.

In last 50 years, North Korea ruled by Kim dynasty broke the world's treatment long times ago.

Some American senates even expected Korean peninsula to be united in 5 years in 1994, however, the reunion is not taking place until now, which would be about 20 years.

The entire world is sensitive on North Korean development of Nukes, because North Korea is hard wired with other "Axises"

22 Feb 12

Because they know how dangerous nuclear weapon is, they tries not to let other countries to make nuclear bomb...
Even if it's assassination...

This is basically talks about the daylight assassination of scientist working on science system. Lots of nations around are assuming it as it's Israel's planned assassination.

"Mossad Training Terrorists to Kill Iran's Nuclear Scientists, U.S. Officials Claim... but Is Israel's Real Target Obama?" Mail Online. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2099142/Mossad-training-terrorists-kill-Irans nuclear-scientists-U-S-officials-claim--Israels-real-target-Obama.html>.

  • U.S. officials confirmed today that Israel has been funding and training Iranian dissidents to assassinate nuclear scientists involved in Iran's nuclear program. 

    The claim has already been levelled by the Iranian government who believed that Mossad, Israel's secret service, have been arming dissidents with the terrorist organisation the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK).

    Last month Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan, 32, a chemistry expert, was killed in a brazen daylight  assassination when two assailants on a motorcycle attached a magnetic  bomb to his car in Tehran.

-Instant death of A-bomb on Hiroshima outnumbers gradual death because of radiation. - Atomic bomb's danger is carved in people's mind, as a result, it was used for the best containment weapon in cold war, even though it was used only once in real warfare.

-Despite the 67 years of time, the aftermath of atomic bomb still remains in form of mutation.

-Because Harry Truman saw atomic bomb's dreadful power, Harry Truman disagreed on General McArthur's opinion to drop Atomic bombs on Chinese major cities during Korean war.

- Peacekeepers wants that there should be no nuclear bomb.

22 Feb 12

Drops of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not only a harsh military damage on Japanese forces, but it was also a trigger of the commencing nuclear arm race and new era called Atomic era. The invention of nuclear weapon and proven efficiency of nuclear weapon is the tipping point of the Modern World History, since it has changed the entire warfare in History to actual warfare to cold wars which has a lot of containments. Also, the significance of the invention of nuclear weapon is the fact that it is still developing and still used in current warfare of containments by nations such as North Korea, or Iran.

22 Feb 12

Throughout the entire history, people have developed the weapons gradually. The basic weapons are sword, spear, or bow. After the invention of gunpowder, people started to use guns or bombs to kill other individuals more efficiently. However, those things were toys compared to Atomic bomb. Seventy thousands to ninety thousands of people died instantly, immeasurably many people are still suffering due to the radiation. (MAGNUM Photos) Atomic bomb’s technology is the most dreadful technology among people’s inventions.

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