This page has information about the common ancestor of all feliforma which is what you need for 3.
ll extant feliforms share a common attribute: the characteristics of their auditory bullae, the bony capsules enclosing the middle and inner ear. This is a key diagnostic in classifying species as Feliform versus Caniform. In feliforms, the auditory bullae are double-chambered, composed of two bones joined by a septum.
Another line of evidence are molecular divergence dates for pinnipeds, and the "fissiped" carnivoran fossil record. The most recent molecular divergence dates published by Fulton and Strobeck (2010) suggest an Oligo-Miocene divergence of basal pinnipeds (this is, however, based on Enaliarctos as a fossil calibration).
How the most common disease you have never heard of is unearthing our evolutionary roots
This is super cool for Primate!!! Awesome cladogram and phylogeny information
The seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. Here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. Natal homing, wherein turtles return to their region of origin for mating and nesting, has been demonstrated with mtDNA sequences. These maternally inherited markers show strong population structure among nesting colonies
Hybridization in almost every combination among members of the Cheloniidae has been documented but the frequency and ultimate ramifications of hybridization are not clear. The global phylogeography of sea turtles reveals a gradient based on habitat preference and thermal regime. The cold-tolerant leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) shows no evolutionary partitions between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic populations, while the tropical green (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea vs. L. kempi) have ancient separations between oceans. Ridleys and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) also show more recent colonization between ocean basins, probably mediated by warm-water gyres that occasionally traverse the frigid upwelling zone in southern Africa. These rare events may be sufficient to prevent allopatric speciation under contemporary geographic and climatic conditions. Genetic studies have advanced our understanding of marine turtle biology and evolution, but significant gaps persist and provide challenges for the next generation of sea turtle geneticists.