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Richard Bradshaw

Richard Bradshaw's Public Library

  • Why this same Supreme court once decided a national bank to be constitutional; but Gen. Jackson, as President of the United States, disregarded the decision, and vetoed a bill for a re-charter, partly on constitutional ground, declaring that each public functionary must support the Constitution, “as he understands it .”
  • The Congress, the executive and the court, must each for itself be guided by its own opinion of the Constitution. Each public officer, who takes an oath to support the Constitution, swears that he will support it as he understands it, and not as it is understood by others.”

  • Students bring their prior expectations, interests and knowledge to the learning experience: The students' experience and insights are of high value as the development of their personal intelligence emerges through actions and the having of wonderful ideas. To reach deep understanding, students need to start from their own sets of ideas, be engaged in the subject matter and make a connection from the actual problem or subject matter to what they already understand. Consequently, the students do the talking as they explain the sense they are making, while the teacher listens.
  • Students need something complex that challenges them to explore: Students need to engage with the phenomena of study, not schematic substitutes. It is in struggling with complex problems that every learner undergoes the process of constructing their own knowledge. As learners experience internal cognitive conflicts in what they believe about the subject matter, their minds become more deeply engaged with the problem at hand. Learners' efforts in figuring out questions and puzzles are more productive than knowing the right answer because higher order thinking processes are involved. Therefore, teachers of critical exploration value the diverse efforts that students make during their explorations even where these efforts do not arrive at expected answers. In facilitating this investigative work, the questions that are asked over and over again by students and teachers alike are, for example: "What do you notice?" What do you mean?" "How are you thinking about it?" "Why do you think that?" "Is that the same as what (someone else) thought they saw?" "How did you figure that?" "How did you do that?" "How does that fit with what she just said?" "Could you give an example?"
  • Hence, most important: It is the students who make sense and understand by trying out their ideas, explaining them to others, and seeing how this holds up in other people's and their own eyes and in the light of the phenomena itself (Duckworth, 2002).

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  • Effective project-based learning is grounded in a strong learning community, one teachers create and must regularly foster. “Project-based learning requires kids to take risks and they aren’t going to take risks if they don’t trust you or each other,” Thomas said. She suggests teachers co-create a social contract with the class at the beginning of the year
  • A short game outside can refocus students and build trust and teamwork at the same time.
  • Building a community of learners starts by getting to know one another.

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  • As Thomas Friedman points out in a New York Times op-ed piece, it is curious that Singapore has learned much of what is required to be successful from the United States. The difference is that Singapore practices what America preaches.

  • Follow the directions for creating the illustrated timeline. Find a suitable app or web site with which to create it. See links below. Be sure that you are able to share it or publish it, so others can view it. Consider using one of the Google apps like Docs, Sheets, or Draw.
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