This volume contains contributions from 24 internationally known scholars covering a broad spectrum of interests in cross-cultural theory and research. This breadth is reflected in the diversity of the topics covered in the volume, which include theoretical approaches to cross-cultural research, the dimensions of national cultures and their measurement, ecological and economic foundations of culture, cognitive, perceptual and emotional manifestations of culture, and bicultural and intercultural processes. In addition to the individual chapters, the volume contains a dialog among 14 experts in the field on a number of issues of concern in cross-cultural research, including the relation of psychological studies of culture to national development and national policies, the relationship between macro structures of a society and shared cognitions, the integration of structural and process models into a coherent theory of culture, how personal experiences and cultural traditions give rise to intra-cultural variation, whether culture can be validly measured by self-reports, the new challenges that confront cultural psychology, and whether psychology should strive to eliminate culture as an explanatory variable.
Cerfs, singes, poules… les animaux multiplient les postures d’intimidation ou de reconnaissance pour établir les relations entre dominants et dominés, le combat mortel, trop risqué, étant souvent évité. A découvrir dans un livre de l’essayiste Alexis Rosenbaum. Tocqueville le disait déjà, nous avons – nous Français en particulier – la passion de l’égalité. Pourtant nos sociétés fonctionnent selon un principe hiérarchique et même si nous en avons atténué les aspects les plus brutaux ou rétrogrades avec le temps, il suffit d’observer une cour de récréation pour constater la pérennité des rapports de domination et l’existence de toute une gamme de comportements destinés à les manifester.
Decades-long field research has flowered into integrative studies that, together with experimental evidence for the requisite social learning capacities, have indicated a reliance on multiple traditions (‘cultures’) in a small number of species. It is increasingly evident that there is great variation in manifestations of social learning, tradition and culture among species, offering much scope for evolutionary analysis. Social learning has been identified in a range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, yet sustained traditions appear rarer, and the multiple traditions we call cultures are rarer still. Here, we examine relationships between this variation and both social intelligence—sophisticated information processing adapted to the social domain—and encephalization. First, we consider whether culture offers one particular confirmation of the social (‘Machiavellian’) intelligence hypothesis that certain kinds of social life (here, culture) select for intelligence: ‘you need to be smart to sustainculture’. Phylogenetic comparisons, particularly focusing on our own study animals, the great apes, support this, but we also highlight some paradoxes in a broader taxonomic survey. Second, we use intraspecific variation to address the converse hypothesis that ‘culture makes you smart’, concluding that recent evidence for both chimpanzees and orangutans support this proposition.
We argue that language evolution started like the evolution of reading and writing, through cultural evolutionary processes. Genuinely new behavioural patterns emerged from collective exploratory processes that individuals could learn because of their brain plasticity. Those cultural–linguistic innovative practices that were consistently socially and culturally selected drove a process of genetic accommodation of both general and language-specific aspects of cognition. We focus on the affective facet of this culture-driven cognitive evolution, and argue that the evolution of human emotions coevolved with that of language. We suggest that complex tool manufacture and alloparenting played an important role in the evolution of emotions, by leading to increased executive control and intersubjective sensitivity. This process, which can be interpreted as a special case of self-domestication, culminated in the construction of human-specific social emotions, which facilitated information sharing. Once in place, language enhanced the inhibitory control of emotions, enabled the development of novel emotions and emotional capacities, and led to a human mentality that departs in fundamental ways from that of other apes. We end by suggesting experimental approaches that can help in evaluating some of these proposals and hence lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary biology of language and emotions.
Social Research: Theory, Methods and Techniques presents an understanding of social research practice through appreciation of its foundations and methods. Stretching from the philosophy of science to detailed descriptions of both qualitative and quantitative techniques, it illustrates not only `how’ to do social research, but also `why’ particular techniques are used today. The book is divided into three parts:
Part One: Illustrates the two basic paradigms – quantitative and qualitative – of social research, describing their origins in philosophical thought and outlining their current interpretations.
Part Two: Devoted to quantitative research, and discusses the relationship between theory and research practice. It also presents a discussion of key quantitative research techniques.
Part Three: Examines qualitative research. Topics range from classical qualitative techniques such as participant observation, to more recent developments such as ethnomethodological studies.
Overall, the author offers an engaging contribution to the field of social research and this book is a reminder of the solid foundations upon which most social research is conducted today. As a consequence it will be required reading for students throughout the social sciences, and at various levels.
This book is designed to help you to succeed in your undergraduate or postgraduate level course on social science research methods. This includes research methods appropriate to a wide range of subjects, such as social science, social anthropology, psychology, leisure studies and sport, hospitality, health studies, the environment, business studies, education and the humanities. It is about helping you to pass your exams and to get most from your coursework assignments, as well as providing a handy summary of research methods if you are a novice researcher. It is designed and written to provide you with an easy-to-navigate guide to the commonly taught curriculum in your course, and the ways of thinking and writing that your examiners will be looking for when they start to grade your work.
With the rapid growth of collaborative, indigenous, and community-based research, one of the key challenges researchers face is finding an effective way of involving non-researchers in the research process. Do It Yourself Social Research has been a best-selling methodology guide for action research projects and community groups in Australia for almost three decades. Always emphasizing the importance of a spirit of inquiry, it demystifies the research process, covering where to start, how to manage a research project, what methods, techniques and resources to use, and interpretation, analysis and reporting. This third edition has been thoroughly revised, adding the use of narrative and dialogue in research, rich research design, and what digital technology can (and can’t) contribute to the research process. With its hands-on, no-nonsense approach, Do It Yourself Social Research is an essential resource for community groups, college students, and other novice researchers in health, social welfare, education and related areas.
The aim of this book is to introduce novice researchers to the world of social science research. Unlike some of the other ‘worlds’ to which you have become accustomed, the world of science may constitute an unknown and therefore somewhat threatening world. All of these factors may lead one to conclude that such a world is quite inaccessible to the ordinary person. However, we will show you that the world of science and of scientific inquiry is inhabited by ordinary people who have learned certain practices and acquired certain knowledge and skills, that are – if not fully transparent – at least not totally mysterious. This book will introduce you to the distinctive features of the world of social science. You will see that scientists are committed to the very specific values of truth, objectivity, impartiality and honesty. They do things in very specific ways and tend to follow procedures which, at first glance, might seem unnecessarily repetitive. They are very protective of certain standardised practices (one can even call them rituals ) such as making their research public (they usually abhor secrecy), submitting their research to evaluation by their peers and placing a high premium on honesty and integrity (rejecting plagiarism).
This report offers: 1) A clear framework for the further development of creativity for children and young people; and, 2) A progression within this framework that starts with the Early Years, is embedded in (but goes beyond) mainstream education, develops a personalised approach, seeks to be inclusive of and responsive to the voice of children and young people and leads to pathways into Creative Industries. Key proposals:
1. Creative Portfolios – Develop a personal portfolio – a creative portfolio – incorporating both formal and informal learning.
2. Early Years – Ensure the visibility of creativity in the Early Learning goals and in the guidance for Children’s Centres.
3. Extended Schools – Set explicit expectations and incentives for creative activity in Extended Schools built on best practice in personalised learning.
4. Building Schools for the Future – Create spaces for creativity and community use.
5. Leading Creative Learning – Prepare new entrants to the education workforce for the roles involved in developing partnerships with creative organisations.
6. Practitioner Partnerships – Develop brokerage arrangements to build the capacity in education and creativity sectors.
7. Pathways to Creative Industries – Create a website to provide industry-approved careers advice and guidance.
8. Frameworks and Regulation – Encourage recognition of creativity through school self-evaluation and through including creativity as one of the themes for the national review programme.
9. The way forward – These proposals need further development. They will build on existing success and further nurture young creative talent.
Young people can best develop the skills for innovation by receiving positive feedback and recognition for early successes and having opportunities to experience successful innovation for themselves. These experiences increase young people’s confidence in their ability to identify problems and find solutions; life skills that are increasingly demanded by employers. Young people’s innovation is usually associated with teenagers, but studies of younger children demonstrate the benefits of teaching design, problem solving or critical skills for developing the capability to innovate. Social inequalities and living in rural communities can also create barriers, restricting young people from accessing the information and social networks that can help them develop their ideas. To use online networks and to gain access to the knowledge, resources and networks they need for innovation, young people need digital access. The ‘disenfranchisement’ of those whose families cannot afford broadband and computers can be a profound barrier for young people who have ideas. There are also more subtle barriers. Adults need to facilitate rather than teach innovation. Young people need the freedom to develop new ideas and concepts themselves.
The Youth Innovation Skills Measurement Tool is an instrument to support the development of the skills and attitudes which young people require if they are to become the innovators of tomorrow. The Tool measures five generic skills that underpin innovative behaviour and form a set of attributes clearly linked to the innovation process:
Creativity (imagination, connecting ideas, tackling and solving problems, curiosity);
Self-efficacy (self belief, self assurance, self awareness, feelings of empowerment, social confidence);
Energy (drive, enthusiasm, motivation, hard work, persistence and commitment);
Risk-propensity (a combination of risk tolerance and the ability to take calculated risks); and
Leadership (vision and the ability to mobilise commitment).
The skills were identified through a literature review and through testing the concepts with separate focus groups of young people and teachers from different disciplines in schools and colleges.
“Les enfants d’aujourd’hui sont la société de demain“. Cette expression exprime bien toute l’importance de l’éducation dans l’organisation des sociétés. L’éducation est un enjeu et un débat sociétal et politique qui divise depuis toujours la société. Trop peu de solutions sont apportées d’un point de vue pratique, par rapport à la formation des enseignants et la pédagogie, alors que l’échec scolaire prend naissance dans la classe. C’est pour cela que j’ai trouvé intéressant de découvrir et d’analyser une pédagogie particulière : la pédagogie Freinet, et de voir quels sont ses effets possibles sur la réussite des élèves, en comparaison avec la pédagogie traditionnelle. La pédagogie est une notion vaste, difficle à définir. Décrite couramment comme l’art d’enseigner, la manière d’expliquer, la pédagogie peut être considérée comme la “réflesion d’une pratique, celle de l’éducateur“. Si l’on a souvent cherché à doter la pédagogie d’un statut plus “scientifique“, elle appartient d’abord à la “sphère de l’action, quelle analyse, critique et oriente“. Qu’en est-il de la prise en charge de l’échec scolaire dans les classes ? Quels sont les moyens mis en place par les enseignants dans leur classe pour gérer les élèves en difficultés scolaires ? Les techniques Freinet, sont-elles plus intéressantes que la pédagogie traditionnelle pour lutter contre l’échec scolaire ? Afin de répondre à ces interrogations, nous verrons donc dans une première partie, qui est Freinet et quels sont les principes fondements de sa pédagogie, puis dans une seconde partie, nous tenterons de voir, grâce à des observations concrètes et à l’analyse des tests d’évaluation de connaissances, quels sont les apports possibles de la pédagogie Freinet dans la lutte contre l’échec scolaire?
La recherche scientifique peut-elle être un modèle d’apprentissage ? Deux invités, une enseignante professeure des écoles et un chercheur vont nous expliquer pourquoi et comment ils travaillent ensemble et comment ils envisagent leurs pratiques pédagogiques. En encourageant les enfants dans cette démarche scientifique, Ange Ansour et François Taddei incitent les élèves à mieux organiser et préciser leur pensée en écrivant avec précision tout ce qu’ils ont observé dans la vie de ces fourmis. C’est en écrivant qu’on acquiert une méthode nécessaire à la recherche scientifique. On passe ainsi du “questionnement“ à la “méthode“…dans cette démarche pédagogique expérimentale et scientifique, on apprend aussi à apprendre. Il s’agit d’une démarche de créativité scientifique. Apprendre à transmettre, mais aussi apprendre à critiquer et réinventer pour demain, individuellement et collectivement dans la classe. Une expérience passionnante que ces élèves ont la chance de vivre dans leur classe.
What is the role of the individual in the collective good? From Rosa Parks to Mother Theresa, human history is rife with examples of prosocial change brought about by individual heroism. In this chapter, we explore the importance of the individual in shaping the collective good through the lens of cultural neuroscience. Specifically, we examine how fundamental components of the social brain, including self-knowledge, empathy-altruism, and a sense of fairness and justice, have been shaped by culture-gene coevolutionary forces and how we can understand individual and collective good as by-products of these core capacities.
Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural, and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience is motivated by two intriguing questions of human nature: How do cultural traits (e.g., values, beliefs, practices) shape neurobiology (e.g., genetic and neural processes) and behavior and how do neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., genetic and neural processes) facilitate the emergence and transmission of cultural traits?
The community stagnates without the impulse of the individual.The impulse dies away without the sympathy of the community.
—William James (1880)
Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition.
Clearly, the study of social learning strategies is a rapidly growing field with implications for multiple fields of research. The empirical studies reviewed here reveal the subtlety and complexity of the learning strategies used by humans. An important contribution of this work, in parallel with studies on non-humans, is to challenge the notion of a single best strategy, or a strategy associated with a particular type of individual, or species. Rather, recent work emphasizes instead the way in which the flexible context-dependent use of a range of subtle biases is a general feature of social learning, in both humans and other animals. In future, this should inspire theoretical researchers in turn to take on the challenge of incorporating meta-strategies into their models.
Empathy is the ability to experience and understand what others feel without confusion between oneself and others. Knowing what someone else is feeling plays a fundamental role in interpersonal interactions. In this paper, we articulate evidence from social psychology and cognitive neuroscience, and argue that empathy involves both emotion sharing (bottom-up information processing) and executive control to regulate and modulate this experience (top-down information processing), underpinned by specific and interacting neural systems. Furthermore, awareness of a distinction between the experiences of the self and others constitutes a crucial aspect of empathy. We discuss data from recent behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies with an emphasis on the perception of pain in others, and highlight the role of different neural mechanisms that underpin the experience of empathy, including emotion sharing, perspective taking, and emotion regulation.
Bringing Marx, Gramsci and Foucault together is not so common in Germany and this is reflected in the limited number of scholars who do such work. Most critical intellectuals who refer to one of these names usually exclude the other two. For example, those who consider Marx from the perspective of the so called new reading of Marx show but little interest in most of the post-Marx-debates and would regard them as more or less misleading, ideological, and insufficiently radical. The same neglect holds for Gramsci, who is often seen by Marx scholars as the theoretician of the ‘historical compromise’. Likewise, Foucault is regarded as incompatible with their concern to reformulate and to restore Marx’ theory. For those refer to both Marx and Gramsci, Foucault is often seen as an unwitting or even deliberate supporter of neo-liberalism. Similarly, analysts of Foucault’s work obviously do not believe that the kind of analyses inspired by Marx – critical political economy, state theory, or critical theory of ideology – could contribute to “governmentality studies” or a critical history of the present. Things become even complicated if we bring Critical Theory into the picture.
A critical and provocative exploration of the political, conceptual and cultural points of resonance between Deleuze‘s minor politics and Marx‘s critique of capitalist dynamics, Deleuze, Marx and Politics is the first book to engage with Deleuze’s missing work, The Grandeur of Marx.
Following Deleuze’s call for an interpretation that draws new relations and connections, this book explores the core categories of communism and capital in conjunction with a wealth of contemporary and historical political concepts and movements – from the lumpenproletariat and anarchism to Italian autonomia and Antonio Negri, immaterial labour and the refusal of work. Drawing on literary figures such as Kafka and Beckett, Deleuze, Marx and Politics develops a politics that breaks with the dominant frameworks of post-Marxism and one-dimensional models of resistance towards a concern with the inventions, styles and knowledges that emerge through minority engagement with social flows and networks. This book is also an intervention in contemporary debates about new forms of identity and community, information technology and the intensification of work. This book will serve as an introduction to Deleuze’s politics and the contemporary vitality of Marx for students and will challenge scholars in the fields of social and political theory, sociology and cultural studies.
Our primary objective in this book is to bring to a larger audience some of the most important developments in the understanding of the relationship of social theory, education, and educational practice in the 20th century through the writings of the late Paulo Freire and Jurgen Habermas. Their key contributions date from the 1960s and have exercised an immense if often diffuse influence on a number of academic fields and types of professional training. Both authors are difficult to classify in either disciplinary or ideological terms, and their reception in various intellectual and national contexts has been a complex and controversial process. Freire is known primarily in educational circles as a Brazilian adult educator who pioneered a form of literacy training based on breaking down the hierarchical teacher-learner relationship, thus allowing adults to learn to “name“ the power relations that define their social world. In contrast, Habermas is best known as a difficult German philosopher who has extended the Frankfurt tradition of critical social theory—which originated in the Weimar Republic in the late 1920s—by defending a critical modernism as a response to the “incomplete” vision of the 18thcentury Enlightenment. We will also occasionally refer to others influenced by their work, especially in domains where they have said little or remained silent. Though this community of researchers is most obvious in the case of Habermas, it has become more apparent recently with the publication of testimonies and commentaries on educational experiments influenced by Freire’s theories.
Although education researchers have drawn on the work of a wide diversity of theorists, a number of these have been of particular significance to education. While the likes of Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, John Dewey and Paulo Freire influenced previous generations of educational theorists, much of the more contemporary theory building has revolved around a quartet of well-known and much-debated thinkers – Michel Foucault, Jürgen Habermas, Pierre Bourdieu and Jacques Derrida. However, while the influence of these thinkers has grown considerably over the last number of years, both their original work and its application to education can prove challenging to the educational practitioner. The challenges they pose to educators are exacerbated by a lack of suitable reading material that can appeal to the advanced practitioner market, while also providing a sufficiently in-depth overview of the various theories and their applications in educational research.
This book expertly rectifies this omission in the educational literature, and delivers a text that is both advanced and accessible, offering the education practitioner/researcher a suitable guide to assist their acquisition and application of social theory. The chapters included in this collection are designed to illustrate the diverse ways in which continental theory of whatever stripe can be applied to educational issues. From school surveillance to curriculum, social theory is used to shed light on ‘practical’ issues facing the sector, helping to widen and deepen discussion around these areas when they are in danger of being over-simplified.