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Hans De Keulenaer
  • Roadmaps for 139 countries to use 100% wind-water-solar in all energy sectors Roadmaps avoid 1.5  Cg l o b a l warming and millions of annual air-pollution deaths Roadmaps reduce social cost of energy and create 24.3 million net long-term jobs Roadmaps reduce power disruption and increase worldwide access to energy
  • We develop roadmaps to transform the all-purpose energy infrastructures (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, agriculture/forestry/fishing) of 139 countries to ones powered by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). The roadmaps envision 80% conversion by 2030 and 100% by 2050. WWS not only replaces business-as-usual (BAU) power, but also reduces it 42.5% because the work: energy ratio of WWS electricity exceeds that of combustion (23.0%), WWS requires no mining, transporting, or processing of fuels (12.6%), and WWS end-use efficiency is assumed to exceed that of BAU (6.9%). Converting may create 24.3 million more permanent, full-time jobs than jobs lost. It may avoid 4.6 million/year premature air-pollution deaths today and 3.5 million/year in 2050; $22.8 trillion/year (12.7 ¢/kWh-BAU-all-energy) in 2050 air-pollution costs; and $28.5 trillion/year (15.8 ¢/kWh-BAU-all-energy) in 2050 climate costs. Transitioning should also stabilize energy prices because fuel costs are zero, reduce power disruption and increase access to energy by decentralizing power, and avoid 1.5  Cg l o b a lw a r m i n g .

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • Top-ranked countries and the rest of the table exhibit a growing divide in performance: Since last year, the top 20 highest-performing countries have achieved twice the average increase in EAPI score compared to that of all other countries.
  • top performers come in all shapes and sizes. Their many variations underscore the potential for any country to make improvements in providing secure, affordable and sustainable energy to its population, regardless of its context.

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • Limiting the global mean temperature rise to below 2°C with a probability of 66% would require an energy transition of exceptional scope, depth and speed.
  • Energy-related CO 2 emissions would need to peak before 2020 and fall by more than 70% from today’s levels by 2050. The share of fossil fuels in primary energy demand would halve between 2014 and 2050 while the share of low-carbon sources, including renewables, nuclear and fossil fuel with carbon capture and stoage (CCS), would more than triple worldwide to comprise 70% of energy demand in 2050.

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • The value of dedicated storage on an electricity grid is system dependent.
  • Storage is widely acknowledged today as an expensive option, but its costs are falling and its value is improving.

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • Impacts are commonly measured by: • energy system costs, • avoided carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, • avoided fossil fuel imports, • health effects, • changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment.
  • Faster decline in cost for renewable technology compared to costs of alternative technologies for energy conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction results in higher RES shares.

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • A team headed by Stanford’s Mark Z. Jacobson outlined plans for 139 nations to transition to 100 percent clean, renewable energy by the year 2050.
  • The shift would also allow the countries to avoid the 3 percent they now spend in their Gross Domestic Products to address the costs of air pollution — mainly in the form of higher health care spending.

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Hans De Keulenaer

Copper Environmental Profile: Most Comprehensive Data Set on Copper Production | Copper Alliance

"As part of our commitment to sustainability, and to help our members improve their own processes, ICA has gathered information and data to enable the users of copper to evaluate its impact and benefits across the life cycle. The result of this work is our Copper Environmental Profile, which features the most representative and comprehensive global data set on copper cathode and concentrate to be made publicly available to date.  "

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Hans De Keulenaer
  • In 3 out of the 4 studies including a business-as-usual cost, the 100% RE scenarios were found to be between 41% and 104% more expensive. The fourth study showed electricity costs to be the same for a 100% RE system and business-as-usual system, and the 100% RE system to be 62% cheaper when externalities are included.
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