This study shows how advertisers can use emotion and attention patterns to engage consumers in watching internet video ads. In an experiment, joy and surprise are assessed through automated facial expression detection for a sample of ads. Concentration of attention is assessed through eye-tracking, and retention of viewers through zapping. This allows tests of unexplored predictions about the interplay of these emotions and attention at each point in time during exposure. The authors find that surprise and joy are effective in concentrating attention and retaining viewers. But importantly, the level rather than the velocity of surprise impacts attention concentration most, whereas the velocity rather than the level of joy impacts viewer retention most. The latter effect is asymmetric: higher gains for increase than loses for decrease. Based on these findings, we develop a measurement tool to compare ads on the basis of their predicted ability to evoke surprise and joy effectively to concentrate attention and retain. Benchmark emotional profiles are developed to show which emotion to evoke when and how intensely, to maximize viewer engagement.
The usage of eye gaze tracking is a new and fast developing field of marketing research. Our case study is considering the effectiveness of point of sale outplacements, and the shelf appliances of a specific men’s cosmetic product. We invited a total of 50 male Hungarian subjects ranging in age from 18 to 24 to participate in the study. Areas of interest (AOI) and fixation duration have been recorded with Tobii X 120 eye tracker. For the purpose of the analysis iMotions’ Attention Tool 3.0 software was applied. The eye tracking data have been combined pre- and post interviews in order
to analyze consumer behavior and identify outplacement and shelf appliance design.
Over the last decade or so, the Internet has become a privileged media for advertisement. Despite this increase in popularity, several studies suggested that Internet users 'avoid' looking at ads (what is often referred to as the banner blindness phenomena). This conclusion, however, rests mostly on indirect evidence that participants do not remember the ad content. Therefore, it is unclear whether participants actually fixated the ads and how their gaze behaviour is related to memory for the ad. In the present study, we investigated whether Internet users avoid looking at ads inserted on a non-search website using an analysis of eye movements, and if the ad content is kept in memory. Our results show that most participants fixate the ads at least once during their website visit. Moreover, even though the congruency between the ad and the editorial content had no effect on fixation duration on the ad, congruent ads were better memorised than incongruent ads. This study provides a novel and systematic method for assessing the processing and retention of advertisements during a website visit.
Users' visual search on a Web page is impacted by information forms, information layout, Internet advertisements (ads for short), etc. Text and picture are two important forms of expressing the information on Web pages, and it is generally through the two forms of title that users can search their desired information. This study investigates the effect of the two basic information forms and floating ads on visual search using eye-tracking. By analyzing the visual search time and pupil diameter, the results show that it is easier to find the picture than the text; whether the target is text or picture, floating ads do not significantly impact people's visual search time, however, it would make people bored.
AdSense text ads have become a popular method of advertising on the web, specifically within blogs when using Blogger. With increasing popularity of blogs, AdSense ads are enticing to bloggers because they offer financial rewards with relatively little effort. The biggest challenge with AdSense is generating revenue through clicks or impressions. Google offers tips on optimal presentation for ads to generate higher revenue, but empirical evidence is lacking in this area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine two important presentation elements of AdSense ads, location and color scheme. Results suggested more information is remembered about an AdSense ad when it has a high contrast color. Increased awareness can lead to higher recall of the ad, thereby, helping build the brand of advertiser which can increase clicks.
In the last decade there has been a rapid growth in commercial applications of eye-tracking technology to assess the effectiveness of visual marketing efforts. Eye-movements are tightly coupled with visual attention which makes them eminent indicators of the covert visual attention process. Now a sizable and growing body of literature exists on attention to visual marketing stimuli. Eye-Tracking for Visual Marketing provides: 1. the foundations of visual attention and eye-tracking 2. a conceptual framework for eye-tracking research in marketing 3. a review of the marketing literature within this conceptual framework.
Motivated from its rising importance in marketing practice and its potential for theoretical contribution, Eye-Tracking for Visual Marketing examines the structure of the eye, the visual brain, eye-movements, and methods for recording and analyzing them. Next, it describes the authors' theory and reviews eye-tracking applications in marketing based on this theory. It conclude with an outlook on future theory and method development and recommendations for practice.
Motivated from the growing importance of visual marketing in practice, we review eye-tracking research to evaluate its effectiveness. We provide a case study of the application of eye-tracking to ad pretesting. We review eye-tracking applications in advertising (print, TV, and banner), health and nutrition warnings, branding, and choice and shelf search behaviors. We then discuss findings, identify current gaps in our knowledge, and provide an outlook on future research.
Eye-tracking research is based upon the assumption that if one may observe where a respondent places his visual attention, one may better understand where the respondent places his mental attention. This is not a new assumption; we know that researchers have been tracking eye movements and publicizing their theories on the subject for almost three centuries (e.g. Porterfield, 1737; Delabarre, 1898; Dodge, 1900 and 1907; Nixon, 1924; Yarbus, 1967; Pieters & Wedel, 2004). What is relatively new is the use of video-based machines to track eye movements for researchers. These machines were very expensive when first developed as they required extensive computing power to calculate the point of regard (visual attention) in real-time from viewing respondent eye features such as corneal reflections and the pupil center. However, as Moore's Law progressed, the cost of these devices has now reached the point that it is very feasible for marketers and market researchers to utilize them.