when students work with computertechnologies, instead of being controlled by them, they enhance the capabilities of thecomputer, and the computer enhances their thinking and learning. The result of anintellectual partnership with the computer is that the whole of learning becomes greaterthan the sum of its parts.
Networked learning and connectivism
Networked learning is a subset of connectivism, which consists of eight attributes:
Principle 1: Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.
Principle 2: Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
Principle 3: Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
Principle 4: Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known
Principle 5: Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
Principle 6: Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
Principle 7: Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
Principle 8: Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.
Australian centre for Innovation article on the knowledge economy
Defining the difference between integrating technologies into the classroom and using ICT's to transform education.
Part 3 of EDU5112 Ict's in Education
Approaches to teaching associated with constructivist-compatible theories of learning are based on the following premises.
Content is based on children’s interests, prior experiences, and current understandings (Ravitz et al., 2000, p. 4).
Knowledge is built through class and group discussions.
Students need to find answers to their own questions and problems.
Students construct concepts for themselves.
Learning focuses on sense making and guided inquiry.
Tasks are authentic and integrated.
Students are involved in diverse classroom projects (Becker, 1998, p.17).
Teaching practices associated with a constructivist philosophy include:
designing activities around teacher and student interests rather than in response to an externally mandated curriculum.
having students engage in collaborative group projects in which skills are taught and practised in authentic contexts rather than in a sequence of textbook exercises.
focusing instruction on students’ understanding of complex ideas rather than on definitions and facts.
teaching students to self-consciously assess their own understanding, in contrast to multi-choice testing.
modelling learning, rather than presenting oneself as fully knowledgeable (Becker & Riel, 1999, p. 11).
In 1997, Scheerens and Bosker conducted a search of all the literature on this subject, and came up with the following list.
Effective learning time, e.g., time on task;
Structured instruction, e.g., well-prepared and well-controlled teaching;
Independent learning, e.g., use of meta-cognitive skills and learning embedded in authentic assignments and ‘real life’ situations;
Differentiation, e.g., instruction that is adaptive to the specific needs of subgroups of pupils; and
Reinforcement and feedback, e.g., cognitive and motivational implications (pp. 125–134).
Look at the way Loveless et al. (2001, pp. 80–81) see the differences in managing knowledge in the table below.
Know as much as there is in the book and as much as the teacher says
Decide what is worth knowing in the head and what needs to be stored
Teacher uses lecture to pass on his or her knowledge to the students;
Teacher helps students access, select, evaluate, organize, and store information from a range of sources
Students put information on paper for the teacher to see
Students publish for a wider audience to see
Paper journals and books as the source of knowledge
Online journals and books
Texts are set
Texts are editable
Students have limited choice of sources
Students’ personal choices are expected
Goals using technology are not integrated or not present
Classroom goals are integrated
Intellectual products are fixed on paper and finished
Intellectual products are revisable living documents
Neat hand written reports appear to be produced by students
Intellectual product has a professional look printed with colour and attention to design
Students hide papers from each other
Students exchange tips about their products
Knowledge is displayed in one form only
Knowledge is written in a range of forms such as web pages, paper reports, and PowerPoint presentations
Knowledge is displayed only in a linear form
Knowledge is displayed in linear and hypertext formats
Students who don’t use technology at a young age
Students use technology early and often.
Ertmer, Gopalakrishnan, and Ross (2000, p. 33) were also interested in the differences between traditional classrooms and classrooms that integrated ICTs, and they considered the following list.
Teacher centered (didactic)
Learner centered (interactive)
Curricular – Depth characteristics
Classroom social organization
Role for technology
Drill and practice
Exploration and knowledge construction
Basic computer literacy with higher level skills building on lower level skills
Emphasis on thinking skills and application
Otto (2008) adapted the work of David Jonassen (1999) to recommend the following elements of a CLE.
Elements of a Constructivist Learning Environment
Element One: The Issue
Element Two: Related Cases
Learners have access to cases in the form of stories or images that record how other learners and experts have solved the issue. The learner can see then solutions they may not have considered (multiple-perspectives).
Cases provide learners with a measure of their progress and reassure them that what they are doing is appropriate.
Using cases to solve a problem is part of an important learning process called Case Based Reasoning, which means reasoning based on previous cases or experiences, and applying remembered cases to suggest a way of solving new problems. There are four steps.
Retrieve: Access a case that demonstrates a solution to a problem similar to the one encountered.
Reuse: Apply the solution in the case and one’s own experience to solve the problem.
Revise: When the problem is solved, a new case has been created.
Retain: Store the new case for other learners to access.
Cases contribute to organisational memory, so that what is achieved is retained for future use.
Element Three: Information Resources
Learners search for and select the information they need. Teachers can provide a suggested list of resources to get them started.
Learners need to access information whenever and wherever they are engaged in learning.
Learners may need support in understanding the information.
Element Four: Tools
Learners use tools to support their learning, and may need support in learning how to use new tools.
Physical Tools: Objects used to perform a task, e.g. sporting, science, mathematics, or manual arts equipment, library resources, art materials, and ICTs.
Thinking Tools: Help to visualize, organize, automate or think about new practices, e.g., a mind map, a wall chart, a set of steps, a contents page, and an index. Thinking tools also enhance performance and information gathering, e.g., word processor, data base, spread sheet, the Internet, library, scanner, camera, and calculator.
Communication Tools: Enable communication when face-to-face meetings are not possible or convenient, e.g., email, email discussion groups, letters and notes, video links, telephone, telephone conferencing, tape recorders, and video recorders.
Element Five: Support
Solving problems involves taking risks because the learner may be uncertain of the processes and results.
Learners do not have to “do it alone”, and are more effective if they work as a team. They need to be encouraged to seek support and to support others by collaborating with peers, teachers, and experts.
ICTs may assist communication and collaboration processes.
outdated article tries to categories the different types of information on the web
Content becomes superseded by what is constructed.
Eek! I always find these discussions worrying as they seem to discount so many other variables (student interests, demography, resources etc.)
t is the final stage of teacher development described by Finger et al. (2007).
The five stages are: