Assignment One: The Origins of the Universe
1 State, then compare and contrast the "Steady State Theory" and the "Big Bang" theories of the formation of the universe.
2 Explain the evidence Mr. Edwin Hubble detected and explain what this evidence tells us about our universe.
3 State what the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation [CMBR] is, and how it supports the "Big Bang" theory of cosmology.
4 State the approximate age of the universe and the evidence used to determine this approximate age.
5 The Big Bang theory explains the expansion of the early universe was too quick to allow synthesis of atoms larger than Helium - He [approximately]. Investigate, state and explain the nucleosynthesis process as it occurs in stars and other celestial events, to form the more massive elements found on the periodic table.
6 Explain how some of the more massive elements spread throughout the universe ended up on Earth.
The steady state theory is not supported by the bulk of the evidence and thus not generally accepted by the cosmological society.
Explain why the word, generates, was used here. What does this imply?
As with the other websites, this page contains the events after the initial bang with rapid expansion and inflation. As the universe cools the particles that compose matter are able to stick/clump together t oform the matter as we know it. This site is nice due to the timeline provided.
The other sites state the same message: cooling and the peices of matter within nuclei gather electrons around them to form the most basic elements of the universe. What is different is tat this site states that hydrogen, helium and lithium form. This is the first site to state lithium formed. we could consdier this speculation and would require us to find an expert to verify this fact.
Doesn't this sound familiar to the other websites?
Finally, as the universe has expanded and cooled enough, gravity begins to draw the matter together into regions which will eventually form stars. This will constitute your second assignment.
The other website describes this background microwave radiation as the 'fuzz' or 'snow' we see on television or radio screens when we are not 'tuned into' a station properly. It also represents the average temperature of the universe at this time. Only about 3 Kelvin which is about -270 degrees celcius.
The idea of a static universe is one which demands that space is not expanding nor contracting but rather is dynamically stable. Albert Einstein proposed such a model as his preferred cosmology by adding a cosmological constant to his equations of general relativity to counteract the dynamical effects of gravity which in a universe of matter would cause the universe to collapse. After the discovery by Edwin Hubble that there was a relationship between redshift and distance, Einstein declared this formulation to be his "biggest blunder".
Even after Hubble's observations, Fritz Zwicky proposed that a static universe could still be viable if there was an alternative explanation of redshift due to a mechanism that would cause light to lose energy as it traveled through space, a concept that would come to be known as "tired light". Subsequent cosmological observations have shown such a model to be an unviable alternative, leading most astrophysicists to conclude that the static universe is essentially falsified.
Here is another historical account of the steady state hypothesis.
Please make note of this very important distinction.
<br><ul><li>Not an explosion <b>IN </b>space.
</li><li>The formation and <b>STRETCHING</b> of space!</li></ul>
The following Scientific American Article should be able to be found in the library.
You should be able to be found this acrticle in the library. Ask the librarian for help.
Since the universe is observed to be expanding, it means that the galaxies were originally right on top of each other. Also, the energy of the universe was concentrated in a smaller volume. The entire universe would have glowed first in the gamma ray band, then the X-ray band, then to less energetic bands as the universe expanded. By now, about 14 billion years after the start of the expansion, the cold universe should glow in the radio band. The expansion rate has slowed down over time because of the force of gravity. This means that the early expansion was faster than it is now. At the start of the expansion, the expansion rate was extremely rapid.
The early large expansion rate and very high temperatures made Fred Hoyle (lived 1915 - 2001) call this theory of the birth of the universe, the Big Bang. At the time he coined the term, Hoyle was advocating another theory that used the perfect cosmological principle called the Steady State theory. So at the time, Hoyle's "Big Bang" term was made in joking disdain. However, the Big Bang proponents liked the term and used it from then on.