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nightsurfer on 2009-12-02Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004.
Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, Schleicher RL, Picciano MF, Yetley EA.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1519-27.
Conclusions: Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was lower in 2000–2004 than 1988–1994. Assay changes unrelated to changes in vitamin D status accounted for much of the difference in most population groups. In an adult subgroup, combined changes in BMI, milk intake, and sun protection appeared to contribute to a real decline in vitamin D status.
In summary, age-standardized mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations based on observed values were significantly lower in 2000–2004 than in 1988–1994 in all groups examined. Adjustment for assay changes noticeably reduced the difference between surveys. However, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained significantly lower in males (except Mexican Americans) in NHANES 2000–2004 than in NHANES III, even after adjustment for assay differences. This remaining difference likely represents a real decline in vitamin D status. Changes in BMI, milk intake, and sun protection appeared to contribute to this decline in a subgroup of non-Hispanic white adults. The possibility that trends in overweight, sun protection, and milk intake may continue supports the need to continue monitoring the serum 25(OH)D status of the population